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54 active trials for Nicotine Dependence

Multimodal Neuroimaging Genetic Biomarkers of Nicotine AddictionSeverity

Background: - Smoking is a difficult habit to quit, and some people find it more difficult to quit than others do. Nicotine is the substance in cigarettes that makes smoking so addictive. Nicotine changes some patterns of brain activity, and smokers have differences in brain activity when compared to non-smokers. Some genes make it more likely that a person will become addicted to smoking. Researchers want to study how nicotine interacts with genes and brain activity. This may help develop better treatments to help people quit smoking. Objectives: - To develop a test of nicotine dependence, using brain activity and genetic analysis, which may be useful in predicting success in smoking cessation and in the development of new smoking cessation treatment targets. Eligibility: Main group: Current smokers between 18 and 55 years of age who are seeking treatment to quit. Comparison group: Current smokers between 18 and 55 years of age who are not seeking to quit. Comparison group: Healthy former smokers between 18 and 55 years of age. Comparison group: Healthy nonsmoking volunteers between 18 and 55 years of age. Design: Participants will be screened with a physical exam and medical history. Blood samples will be collected. The three comparison groups will have one magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan session. They will have tests of thinking, concentration, and memory both inside the scanner, and while sitting in front of a computer. Current smokers who are trying to quit must be willing to undergo a course of nicotine treatment that includes weekly counseling (for 12 weeks) and e-cigarettes. Participants will attempt smoking abstinence and will have a total of 6 MRI scanning sessions. They will do thinking, concentration, and memory tasks inside and outside of the scanner. For smokers, the first scanning session will take place before they attempt to quit. This will be a baseline scan. The second scanning session will take place 48 hours after having their last real cigarette. After this scan, they will use electronic cigarettes to help quit their habit. After using e-cigarettes for two weeks, smokers will have a third scan session.. They will then gradually taper their use of the electronic cigarettes over the course of three weeks, at which point they will be nicotine abstinent. After about 5 weeks of abstinence, they will have the fourth scan. The fifth scan will be approximately 6 months after start of the study, and the final scan will take place at about 1 year from the study start. Smokers will continue to receive support on quitting smoking until the study ends at about 1 year.

Start: November 2013
Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms and Smoking Relapse

Background: - Smoking is thought to cause changes in the brain that lead to addiction and craving. Smokers who try to quit experience nicotine withdrawal symptoms that include irritability, anxiety, and difficulty concentrating. These symptoms make it difficult for people to stop smoking. Many people say that they continue smoking to help relieve these symptoms, often within the first week after trying to quit. Researchers want to study what is happening in the brain to cause these symptoms, which may help identify new ways to successfully quit smoking. Objectives: - To study nicotine withdrawal symptoms and brain function in smokers who stop smoking for 36 hours. Eligibility: - Individuals between 18 and 65 years of age who smoke at least 10 cigarettes per day. Participants must be able to stop smoking for 36 hours on two occasions. Design: Phase 1 This study will involve three visits to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. NOT be able to smoke for 36 hours before the two imaging visits. Wear a nicotine skin patch or a placebo (fake) patch during your 36 hour smoking abstinence period and study visits. Have your blood drawn to test for levels of stress-related hormones. Complete multiple MRI scanning sessions that last about 1.5 to 2 hours each. Undergo EEG (brain waves) recording. Answer questionnaires about how you think and feel. Complete various tasks and procedures inside and outside of the MRI scanner. Phase 2 This study will involve thirteen visits to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Set a quit date and develop a treatment plan with a study therapist. Take Chantix (varenicline) every day for a period of 12 weeks. Meet for weekly and biweekly counseling sessions with a therapist. Answer questionnaires about how you think and feel. Phase 3 This study will involve three visits to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Complete an MRI scanning session that will last about 20min each visit Meet with a study staff member on each visit who will ask you questions about your smoking behavior and how you think and feel....

Start: May 2013
The Role of Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Alkaloids in E-Cigarette Use and Dependence

The advent of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) technologies represents one of the most significant developments in the last several decades, and provides a novel and promising strategy for substantially reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with smoking. However, serious concerns have been raised regarding the possibility that e-cigarettes will sustain a dependency on nicotine and that they may lead to continued use of conventional cigarettes known to be extremely harmful to health. Cigarette addiction critically involves a dependence on nicotine, but it is likely that other tobacco constituents contribute to dependence as well. Recent evidence suggests that non-nicotine tobacco alkaloids, or NNTAs (including anabasine, anatabine, nornicotine, and myosmine) may play a role in tobacco dependence. These alkaloids have been shown to augment the reinforcing effects of nicotine in animal models and to affect cravings in human smokers. E-cigarettes contain variable quantities of nicotine and NNTAs, but there is virtually no information available concerning the role of e-cigarette nicotine or NNTA content in influencing the concurrent use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, when smokers attempt to switch from conventional combustible cigarettes to e-cigarettes. Additionally, it is not known whether the presence of nicotine and NNTAs in e- cigarettes may sustain dependence, making it difficult to relinquish these products. The proposed project will assess the acceptability, extent of switching behavior, and degree of dependence maintained when smokers are provided with e-cigarettes containing nicotine and NNTAs.

Start: May 2021