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91 active trials for Neuroblastoma

3rd Generation GD-2 Chimeric Antigen Receptor and iCaspase Suicide Safety Switch, Neuroblastoma, GRAIN

Subjects that have relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma are invited to take part in this gene transfer research study. We have found from previous research that we can put a new gene called a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) into T cells that will make them recognize neuroblastoma cells and kill them. In a previous clinical trial, we used a CAR that recognizes GD2, a protein found on almost all neuroblastoma cells (GD2-CAR). We put this gene into T cells and gave them back to patients that had neuroblastoma. The infusions were safe and in patients with disease at the time of their infusion, the time to progression was longer if we could find GD2 T cells in their blood for more than 6 weeks. Because of this, we think that if T cells are able to last longer, they may have a better chance of killing neuroblastoma tumor cells. Therefore, in this study we will add new genes to the GD2 T cells that can cause the cells to live longer. These new genes are called CD28 and OX40. The purpose of this study will be to determine the highest dose of iC9-GD2-CD28-OX40 (iC9-GD2) T cells that can safely be given to patients with relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma. In other clinical studies using T cells, some investigators found that giving chemotherapy before the T cell infusion can improve the amount of time the T cells stay in the body and therefore the effect the T cells can have. This is called lymphodepletion and we think that it will allow the T cells we infuse to expand and stay longer in the body, and potentially kill cancer cells more effectively. The chemotherapy we will use for lymphodepletion is a combination of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine. Additionally, to effectively kill the tumor cells, it is important that the T cells are able to survive and expand in the tumor. Recent studies have shown that solid tumors release a substance (PD1) that can inhibit T cells after they arrive into the tumor tissue. In an attempt to overcome the effect of PD1 in neuroblastoma we will also give a medication called pembrolizumab.

Start: August 2013
Bivalent Vaccine With Escalating Doses of the Immunological Adjuvant OPT-821, in Combination With Oral ?-glucan for High-Risk Neuroblastoma

In the first part of this study we found the highest dose of the vaccine that did not have too many side effects. We are now trying to find out what effects the vaccine has when given at the same dose to all patients. The main treatment in this protocol is a vaccine. It is called a " bivalent vaccine" which means it has 2 antigens. An antigen is a specific protein on the surface of a cell. The antigens are called GD2L and GD3L. We want the vaccine to cause the patient's immune system to make antibodies against the antigens. Antibodies are made by the body to attack cancer (and to fight infections). If the patient can make antibodies against the 2 antigens in the vaccine, those antibodies might also attach to neuroblastoma cells because a lot of each antigen is on neuroblastoma (and very little on other parts of the body). Then, the attached antibodies would attract the patient's white blood cells to kill the neuroblastoma. This protocol also uses ?-glucan which is a kind of sugar from yeast. ?-glucan is taken by mouth and can help white blood cells kill cancer. The best way to get the body to make antibodies against the 2 antigens is to link each antigen to a protein called KLH (which stands for: keyhole limpet hemocyanin) and to mix them with a substance called QS-21. But it is hard to get enough QS-21 so we are using an identical substance called OPT-821, which we can get easily in large amounts for use in patients.

Start: May 2009
Familial Investigations of Childhood Cancer Predisposition

NOTE: This is a research study and is not meant to be a substitute for clinical genetic testing. Families may never receive results from the study or may receive results many years from the time they enroll. If you are interested in clinical testing please consider seeing a local genetic counselor or other genetics professional. If you have already had clinical genetic testing and meet eligibility criteria for this study as shown in the Eligibility Section, you may enroll regardless of the results of your clinical genetic testing. While it is well recognized that hereditary factors contribute to the development of a subset of human cancers, the cause for many cancers remains unknown. The application of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has expanded knowledge in the field of hereditary cancer predisposition. Currently, more than 100 cancer predisposing genes have been identified, and it is now estimated that approximately 10% of all cancer patients have an underlying genetic predisposition. The purpose of this protocol is to identify novel cancer predisposing genes and/or genetic variants. For this study, the investigators will establish a Data Registry linked to a Repository of biological samples. Health information, blood samples and occasionally leftover tumor samples will be collected from individuals with familial cancer. The investigators will use NGS approaches to find changes in genes that may be important in the development of familial cancer. The information gained from this study may provide new and better ways to diagnose and care for people with hereditary cancer. PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Establish a registry of families with clustering of cancer in which clinical data are linked to a repository of cryopreserved blood cells, germline DNA, and tumor tissues from the proband and other family members. SECONDARY OBJECTIVE: Identify novel cancer predisposing genes and/or genetic variants in families with clustering of cancer for which the underlying genetic basis is unknown.

Start: April 2017