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282 active trials for Type 2 Diabetes

Postprandial VLDL-triglyceride Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes Patients With and Without NAFLD

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum from simple reversible hepatic steatosis to inflammation and fibrosis termed steatohepatitis (NASH). The mechanisms behind why some subjects progress from NAFLD to NASH are not clear and the responsible mechanism for storage of excess amounts of liver fat in patients with NAFLD are poorly understood. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and abdominally obese subjects very often have accumulation of liver fat (NAFLD). T2D is also associated with abnormal lipid metabolism (dyslipidemia), including free fatty acids (FFA), hypertriglyceridemia and excessive postprandial hyperlipidemia which increases the risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart failure. In healthy, insulin sensitive subjects the postprandial increase in triglycerides (TG) is primarily caused by meal derived chylomicrons, whereas endogenously produced TG (VLDL-TG) and decreased peripheral TG clearance only becomes quantitatively important in insulin resistant subjects .Thus, postprandial lipidemia in T2D results from both chylomicronemia as well as a reduction in both insulin mediated suppression of VLDL-TG secretion and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mediated peripheral clearance. A recent study demonstrated that the ability of insulin to suppress hepatic VLDL-TG after a fat-enriched meal and the duration of the postprandial hyperlipidemia was similar in patients with T2D compared with age- and BMI matched individuals without T2D, indicating that the degree of insulin mediated VLDL-TG secretion and hyperlipidemia primarily depends on insulin sensitivity and not the presence of T2D diabetes per se. In these studies, the investigators want to examine the effect of a fat enriched mixed-meal on hepatic VLDL-TG handling and adipose storage capacity in patients with T2D with and without NAFLD. Investigators will address these questions using carboxyl-14C triolein labeled VLDL-TG, magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy of liver, muscle and fat biopsies in combination with state-of-the art muscle and adipose tissue enzyme kinetics, gene- and protein expression. The overarching goals are to define abnormalities and differences between patients with T2D with and without NAFLD in terms of hepatic lipid metabolism.

Aarhus NStart: September 2021
Gut Microbiota in Metabolic Surgery

Metabolic surgery is an emerging option to treat obesity-related metabolic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes) and prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Metabolic surgery can profoundly alter the gut microbiota; meanwhile, gut microbiota may affect surgical outcomes. Longitudinal studies that examined pre- to post-surgery changes in gut microbiota and its relation to cardiometabolic health after surgery are limited. Furthermore, few studies have included African Americans, a population with high rates of cardiometabolic diseases. The investigators aim to fill these research gaps by establishing a longitudinal, observational study of metabolic surgery patients and applying multi-omics to identify stool, blood, and/or tissue microbial features related to post-surgery cardiometabolic outcomes. In the current study, the investigators plan to enroll up to 300 patients who undergo metabolic surgery at Vanderbilt University Medical Center and follow them for up to 10 years after surgery. Fasting blood and stool samples will be collected at pre-surgery and 3-month and 1-year post-surgery clinical visits. Tissue samples (e.g., biopsies of the liver and adipose and remnants of the stomach) will be collected during operation. Meanwhile, participants will complete a REDCap survey at baseline and 1-year post-surgery. Participants' electronic medical records will be used to obtain additional information and facilitate long-term follow-up. The investigators will evaluate pre- to post-surgery changes in the fecal microbiome and fecal and blood levels of metabolites and the associations of microbiome and metabolites with CVD risk score and improvements in hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia after surgery. This study will advance our understanding of the role of gut microbiota in metabolic surgery, which may translate into novel approaches to identify and treat obese patients for better cardiometabolic health.

Nashville, TennesseeStart: August 2021