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27 active trials for Smoking Tobacco

Development and Assessment of a Teacher-led Intervention in Preventing Tobacco Use Among the Youth in Ghana

The main purpose of this experimental study is to compare the existing health education program for School Health and Education Program (SHEP) in the Junior High Schools with a new health education model (Smart-Kids') for the prevention of smoking initiation and to improve the quit rate among students in Upper East Region of Ghana. The intervention will be based on the Theory of Triadic Influences (TTI) which involves the cultural environment in which adolescents mature, their immediate social situation, and intrapersonal differences. These three factors impact through different mediating variables, such as attitudes, normative beliefs, and self-efficacy, which eventually affect smoking intentions and smoking behavior as the outcome measures. The study design is a cluster randomized control trial. After baseline assessment, the investigators will randomize schools to receive the new health education for three months whiles the comparator (control group) will continue with the usual health education. The investigators will conduct a post-intervention assessment using the same questionnaire with unique identity codes linking each participant to their baseline assessments immediately at the end of the intervention. Final assessment will be done approximately three months after the intervention. The investigators will assess and compare the effectiveness of the new health model to the normal health promotion programs (SHEP). The investigators hypothesized that there will be no significant differences observed between the new teacher-led health education program (the Smart-Kids Program) and the existing SHEP coordinator-led in preventing smoking uptake among the youth. Alternatively, the new teacher-led health education program would facilitate the effects of the program on outcomes. on four key primary endpoints as follows: H1: The intervention study will result in a 30% reduction in smoking uptake H2: The intervention study will result in a 10% reduction in smokers H3. The intervention will increase knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use by 50% H4. The intervention will increase the willingness to quit smoking by 10% among smokers

Start: June 2021
Tobacco Cessation in Public Housing

The inequity in cessation resources is at forefront in the recently enacted nationwide smoking ban in public housing facilities. The critical component lacking from the federal decree was a practical smoking cessation strategy to address the real-world needs of active smokers who maintain cigarette usage. The investigator's proposal is ideally situated for this contemporary moment when low-income smokers in public housing are signing leases describing the potential for smoking-related evictions and thus at least contemplating smoking modification. The investigator's project is centered around the residents of Baltimore City Public Housing which is among the larger-sized U.S. public housing agencies. Using a human-centered design (HCD) approach, the investigators are refining and testing a community-centric cessation strategy defined by two core elements: a) durable and jointly linked community/hospital infrastructure systems (remote cessation specialist staffing and drug supplies) and strong on-site (public housing) residential leadership commitment to cessation improvement. These dual features, along with adaptable elements that can be modified to a variety of local/national housing settings, defines how the investigator's project will overcome the implementation gaps defining failed smoking cessation efforts in lower-income settings. The objective of this project is to test the feasibility of the intervention package among local housing contextual factors that could impact both the acceptability and adoptability of the investigator's project. Using a collection of formative and implementation evaluation measures, the investigator's academic-community partnership project is well positioned to create an adaptable and customizable intervention that can be scaled in similar housing populations.

Start: July 2021
Nicotinic Hepatic Metabolism on Neuroreceptor Substrates of Nicotine Addiction

Physically healthy adult smokers may be eligible for this study. Volunteers may participate in this study if they are 18 - 65 years old. Subjects will participate in two separate 7-hour PET/CT Scan Sessions (each with 2 hours of actual PET/CT scanning): one following an overnight abstinence and one following two overnights of abstinence. To achieve and confirm two overnights of abstinence, participants will present to the inpatient CHPS the day prior to the scheduled scan and stay overnight. The 2-[18F]-FA PET/CT brain scans will consist of an injection followed by an 7-hour infusion of 2-[18F]-FA. The scan session will begin at approximately 4 hours after the bolus injection. The PET/CT scan will occur in two segments. Starting at approximately 4 hours post bolus and infusion start, we will scan for approximately 90 minutes with a bolus injection of IV nicotine that will occur approximately 15 minutes into the scanning procedure. There will be a break in scanning of approximately 60 minutes, during which subjects will be allowed to get off the scanner and use the restroom, if necessary. The second scan segment will start at approximately 6.5 hours post bolus injection, t. This segment will last approximately 30 minutes. The pre and post nicotine images will be analyzed to evaluate for differences in receptor uptake after the nicotine "challenge". Subjects will have a structural Brain MRI performed within 1 year prior to study enrollment or subjects who have not had a Brain MRI that is deemed acceptable for use for this study will undergo a research Brain MRI after consent.

Start: June 2018
BROnchoalveolar Investigations of Never-smokers With Chronic Obstruction From the Swedish CardioPulmonary bioImage Study

Obstructive lung disease is an increasing global health problem of pandemic proportions, with COPD alone affecting >10% of the population. Smoking is the main and most well studies risk factor for developing COPD. However, chronic airway obstruction also in never-smoking populations has recently been recognized as an increasing health problem. In the clinical segment (PI: Prof. C. Magnus Skold), 1000 subjects from the Swedish national SCAPIS study will be clinically well characterized in one of the six Swedish University Hospital Respiratory clinics (clinical site PIs: Anders Andersson, Leif Bjermer, Anders Blomberg, Christer Janson, Lennart Persson, Magnus Skold). This first screening includes all never-smokers with COPD identified in the SCAPIS study. A subset of 300 subjects from the groups of Healthy never-smokers, current-smokers with normal lung function, current-smokers with COPD, ex-smokers with COPD, and never-smokers with COPD will be selected for the Bronchoscopy segment, were sampling will be performed from a number of anatomical locations, including bronchial biopsies, airway epithelial brushings, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Serum, plasma, and urine samples will also be collected. In the systems medicine segment (PI: Assoc. prof Asa M. Wheelock), alterations at the epigenetic, mRNA, microRNA, proteome, metabolome and microbiome level will be performed from multiple lung compartments (airway epithelium, alveolar macrophages, exosomes, and bronchoalveolar exudates). By means of biostatistics and bioinformatics approaches, specific mediators and molecular pathways critical in the pathological mechanisms of obstructive lung disease related to never-smoker disease phenotypes will be identified. In the immunohistochemistry segment (PI: Prof. Jonas Erjefalt), a number of molecules of relevance for disease pathology will be investigated in bronchial biopsies collected from the 300 subjects in the Bronchoscopy segment.

Start: February 2017