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13 active trials for Smoking Reduction

Development and Assessment of a Teacher-led Intervention in Preventing Tobacco Use Among the Youth in Ghana

The main purpose of this experimental study is to compare the existing health education program for School Health and Education Program (SHEP) in the Junior High Schools with a new health education model (Smart-Kids') for the prevention of smoking initiation and to improve the quit rate among students in Upper East Region of Ghana. The intervention will be based on the Theory of Triadic Influences (TTI) which involves the cultural environment in which adolescents mature, their immediate social situation, and intrapersonal differences. These three factors impact through different mediating variables, such as attitudes, normative beliefs, and self-efficacy, which eventually affect smoking intentions and smoking behavior as the outcome measures. The study design is a cluster randomized control trial. After baseline assessment, the investigators will randomize schools to receive the new health education for three months whiles the comparator (control group) will continue with the usual health education. The investigators will conduct a post-intervention assessment using the same questionnaire with unique identity codes linking each participant to their baseline assessments immediately at the end of the intervention. Final assessment will be done approximately three months after the intervention. The investigators will assess and compare the effectiveness of the new health model to the normal health promotion programs (SHEP). The investigators hypothesized that there will be no significant differences observed between the new teacher-led health education program (the Smart-Kids Program) and the existing SHEP coordinator-led in preventing smoking uptake among the youth. Alternatively, the new teacher-led health education program would facilitate the effects of the program on outcomes. on four key primary endpoints as follows: H1: The intervention study will result in a 30% reduction in smoking uptake H2: The intervention study will result in a 10% reduction in smokers H3. The intervention will increase knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use by 50% H4. The intervention will increase the willingness to quit smoking by 10% among smokers

Start: June 2021
Tobacco Cessation in Public Housing

The inequity in cessation resources is at forefront in the recently enacted nationwide smoking ban in public housing facilities. The critical component lacking from the federal decree was a practical smoking cessation strategy to address the real-world needs of active smokers who maintain cigarette usage. The investigator's proposal is ideally situated for this contemporary moment when low-income smokers in public housing are signing leases describing the potential for smoking-related evictions and thus at least contemplating smoking modification. The investigator's project is centered around the residents of Baltimore City Public Housing which is among the larger-sized U.S. public housing agencies. Using a human-centered design (HCD) approach, the investigators are refining and testing a community-centric cessation strategy defined by two core elements: a) durable and jointly linked community/hospital infrastructure systems (remote cessation specialist staffing and drug supplies) and strong on-site (public housing) residential leadership commitment to cessation improvement. These dual features, along with adaptable elements that can be modified to a variety of local/national housing settings, defines how the investigator's project will overcome the implementation gaps defining failed smoking cessation efforts in lower-income settings. The objective of this project is to test the feasibility of the intervention package among local housing contextual factors that could impact both the acceptability and adoptability of the investigator's project. Using a collection of formative and implementation evaluation measures, the investigator's academic-community partnership project is well positioned to create an adaptable and customizable intervention that can be scaled in similar housing populations.

Start: July 2021
Construal Level as a Novel Pathway for Affect Regulation and Cancer Control

The objective of the proposed research is to conduct a longitudinal experiment on the neurocognitive pathways and individual differences in high-level construal for affect regulation and smoking cessation. The population is adult smokers aged 25-55 who have tried and failed to quit multiple times and who are experiencing poverty. The primary endpoints are (a) the similarity in neural representation of high-level construal to one of two candidate pathways, (b) the presence of meaningful individual differences in the neural representation of high-level construal, and (c) as a secondary endpoint, the effect size of the high-level construal condition (relative to treatment-as-usual) on smoking as measured by cigarettes per day. Each of these endpoints corresponds to a specific null hypothesis. The null hypothesis for the first endpoint is that high-level construal is not significantly different in its neural representation from down-regulation of craving, which would suggest that high-level construal does not operate through distinct mechanisms from traditional treatments. The null hypothesis for the second endpoint is that the between-subjects variability in the neural representation of construal level does not significantly relate to relevant individual differences measures (e.g., traits, task behavior), which would suggest that individual differences are not meaningfully related to outcomes. Finally, the null hypothesis for the secondary endpoint is that the magnitude of the effect of high-level construal on smoking as measured by reductions in average cigarettes per day is not significantly greater than in TAU, which would suggest that the efficacy of the high-level construal condition is not significantly greater than a standard text-messaging intervention. The primary endpoints will be assessed at baseline and change from pre-to-post training (8 weeks).

Start: May 2021