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96 active trials for Preterm Birth

Vaginal, Placental and Neonatal Buccal Mycobiota and Microbiome in Preterm Birth

Microbiota contributes to the immunological, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis of the host. As in all natural orifices in the body, there is also a microbiota and mycobiota specific to the vagina. On the other hand, the sonographic short cervix in the second trimester of pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery, which may be an important cause of mortality and morbidity in the neonatal period. American Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), British Royal Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (RCOG) and the American Society of Maternal Fetal Medicine (SMFM) suggest that the measurement of transvaginal sonographic cervical length at 20-24 gestational weeks for the screening of preterm birth. The aforementioned associations also recommend the use of progesterone in the treatment of women who diagnosed with short cervix by transvaginal ultrasonography due to the fact that progesterone is an effective medication in the prevention of preterm birth (Grade B). Previous vaginal microbiota studies have shown that some bacterial species such as Lactobacillus insers cause a predisposition to premature labor in women with a short cervix. However, the prominent lack in these studies is that the eukaryotic fungi in abundant vaginal flora have not been evaluated. On the other hand, it was already shown that progesterone treatment is able to prevent only 45% preterm birth in women with short cervical length. This observational prospective study thus aims to evaluate the variety of microbiota and/or mycobiota in pregnancies resulting in preterm birth and those who give birth at term. Although women with short cervical length receive progesterone regularly from the second trimester, the preterm birth may occur. In this study, the investigators also aim to evaluate the patterns of microbiota and mycobiota from vaginal swabs of women who had preterm birth with short cervical length and postpartum swabs of the placenta and fetal oral cavity.

Start: April 2020
Glycemic Control After Antenatal Corticosteroids in Women With Pregestational Diabetes

There is a fundamental gap in understanding the maternal and neonatal effects of antenatal corticosteroid (ACS) administration in women with threatened preterm birth (PTB) who have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since the initial discovery of ACS for neonatal benefit in 1972, more than 40 randomized controlled trials have been performed evaluating its efficacy. However, none of these trials have included women with T2DM. While ACS have been shown to reduce neonatal morbidity associated with PTB in non-diabetic women, the side effects of ACS (maternal hyperglycemia and fetal hyperinsulinemia) may mitigate the neonatal benefit of ACS in women with T2DM. Before neonatal benefit of ACS can be evaluated in this population, the first step is to optimize maternal glycemic control after ACS. Previous studies evaluating maternal hyperglycemia after ACS have been limited by small sample size, retrospective study design, or insufficient glucose data. Use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in a randomized clinical trial provides a unique opportunity to overcome these challenges. Our long-term goal is to improve maternal and child health among women with T2DM as an independently funded clinical researcher. The research objectives of this proposal are to test the efficacy of three treatment strategies at achieving maternal glycemic control after ACS and evaluate the association between maternal glycemic control and neonatal outcomes. Our central hypothesis is that treatment with a continuous insulin infusion will improve maternal glycemic control, which is key to improving neonatal outcomes, but at the cost of less patient satisfaction and more health resource utilization. This hypothesis will be tested by pursuing the following specific aims: 1) Test the efficacy of three treatment strategies (addition of sliding scale insulin, up-titration of home insulin, and continuous insulin infusion) at achieving maternal glycemic control after ACS and 2) Quantify the association between maternal glycemic control after ACS and neonatal morbidity. Completion of these aims will determine the optimal strategy to achieve maternal glycemic control after ACS and inform a larger, multicenter trial to improve neonatal outcomes among women with T2DM and threatened PTB.

Start: May 2021
Biomarkers in Obstetrical Complications

Objective: To study the natural history of normal pregnancy and the most frequent pregnancy complications responsible for the excessive rate of perinatal morbidity and mortality, in order to develop models to predict the occurrence of these complications of pregnancy at the earliest possible time. The study focuses on the prediction of preterm labor with intact membranes, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM), preeclampsia, small for gestational age, gestational diabetes, and fetal death. These complications account for a minimum of $30 billion annually in the US alone. Study population: A cohort of pregnant women seeking care at the prenatal clinic of the Perinatology Research Branch in Detroit, Michigan. Design: A prospective observational cohort study of the natural history of women with a normal pregnancy, a history of adverse outcome, or those with a complication in the index pregnancy; therefore, this study will include nulliparous and parous women. Data will be collected at the time of clinic visits and will include interviews, clinical measurements, and ultrasound studies. We will assemble a biorepository of maternal biological fluids (blood, urine, saliva, cervicovaginal fluid, gingival crevicular fluid, swabs to characterize microbiota, amniotic fluid when a clinically indicated amniocentesis is performed). Placentas will be collected at the time of delivery as well as umbilical blood, and swabs to characterize the neonatal microbiota. We will use a retrospective case control and case-cohort design to generate models for the prediction of the most common pregnancy complications. These models will be developed by classifying obstetrical complications according to clinical presentation and histologic placental lesions. Models will be developed and subsequently validated in an independent cohort. Outcome measures: The goal is to develop sensitive, specific, and parsimonious predictive models to identify the patients at risk for developing complications of pregnancy using a combination of clinical and biological markers (biochemical and biophysical).

Start: February 2018
Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) Levels During Resuscitation of Preterm Infants at Birth (The POLAR Trial).

Premature babies often need help immediately after birth to open their lungs to air, start breathing and keep their hearts beating. Opening their lungs can be difficult, and once open the under-developed lungs of premature babies will often collapse again between each breath. To prevent this nearly all premature babies receive some form of mechanical respiratory support to aid breathing. Common to all types of respiratory support is the delivery of a treatment called positive end-expiratory pressure, or PEEP. PEEP gives air, or a mixture of air and oxygen, to the lung between each breath to keep the lungs open and stop them collapsing. Currently, clinicians do not have enough evidence on the right amount, or level, of PEEP to give at birth. As a result, doctors around the world give different amounts (or levels) of PEEP to premature babies at birth. In this study, the Investigators will look at 2 different approaches to PEEP to help premature babies during their first breaths at birth. At the moment, the Investigators do not know if one is better than the other. One is to give the same PEEP level to the lungs. The others is to give a high PEEP level at birth when the lungs are hardest to open and then decrease the PEEP later once the lungs are opened and the baby is breathing. Very premature babies have a risk of long-term lung disease (chronic lung disease). The more breathing support a premature baby needs, the more likely the risk of developing chronic lung disease. The Investigators want to find out whether one method of opening the baby's lungs at birth results in them needing less breathing support. This research has been initiated by a group of doctors from Australia, the Netherlands and the USA, all who look after premature babies.

Start: May 2021
Oxygen Assist Module in Preterm Infants on High Flow Nasal Cannula Support.

Oxygen treatment is common in babies born early (preterm) and requiring intensive care. Having too much or too little oxygen can increase the risk of damage to the eyes and lungs, and contribute to death or disability. Preterm infants because of their immaturity experience episodes of low oxygen levels. The low oxygen episodes are primarily due to pauses in their breathing (Apnoea of prematurity) and immaturity of their lung. These episodes persist for weeks to months. The lower the gestation at birth the longer the duration of these events. Studies have shown that these episodes of low oxygen saturations especially if frequent and prolonged is associated with poor developmental outcome, severe eye disease and lung disease. Traditionally, the oxygen delivery is manually adjusted when infant has low oxygen saturation. However previous studies have shown despite the best efforts the oxygen level can only be maintained less than half of the time and nearly a one-fifth of the time infant spends in low oxygen levels and nearly one-third of the time in high oxygen levels. With advancement in the neonatal care, preterm infants tend to spend more time on non invasive respiratory support. Now it is possible to maintain oxygen level in target range by using automatic control of oxygen delivery on non invasive support. With the proposed study, we would like to study the efficacy of automatic control of oxygen delivery in reducing the time spent in very low and high oxygen levels when infants are on non invasive respiratory support namely High Flow Nasal Cannula support.

Start: April 2021
Microbiome And Multi'Omics In Preterm Birth: The Bacteria And Birth Study

Hominids and hominins serve as remarkable hosts to microbes, and we have co-evolved over the past 4.5 million years as highly plethoric communities. Human-associated microorganisms (the "microbiome") are present in numbers exceeding the quantities of human cells by at least 10-fold beginning in the neonatal period. The collective genome (the "metagenome") exceeds our human genome in terms of gene content by more than 150-fold. With respect to microbiota and preterm birth, it has generally assumed that the majority of intrauterine infections originate in the lower genital tract, with microbiota ascending into the otherwise sterile intrauterine environment to infect the placenta (preterm birth), fetal membranes (chorioamnionitis), umbilical cord (funisitis), and the fetus (sepsis). However, we and others have recently demonstrated that the vaginal and gut microbiome communities are distinctly structured in pregnancy, and the placenta is in fact not sterile, but rather harbors a low-abundance microbiome which is likely acquired through hematogenous transmission of the oral microbiome. Based on our prior studies and preliminary data, our central hypothesis is that a distinct and largely commensal resident microbiome in pregnancy renders risk for preterm birth. By utilizing our state-of-the-science technology and analysis tools in a longitudinal case-cohort of preterm birth subjects, we will be able to transform "discovery based" metagenomics and multi'omics science into readily translatable mechanistic studies at a previously unparalleled level.

Start: June 2014