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59 active trials for Morbid Obesity

Gut Microbiota in Metabolic Surgery

Metabolic surgery is an emerging option to treat obesity-related metabolic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes) and prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Metabolic surgery can profoundly alter the gut microbiota; meanwhile, gut microbiota may affect surgical outcomes. Longitudinal studies that examined pre- to post-surgery changes in gut microbiota and its relation to cardiometabolic health after surgery are limited. Furthermore, few studies have included African Americans, a population with high rates of cardiometabolic diseases. The investigators aim to fill these research gaps by establishing a longitudinal, observational study of metabolic surgery patients and applying multi-omics to identify stool, blood, and/or tissue microbial features related to post-surgery cardiometabolic outcomes. In the current study, the investigators plan to enroll up to 300 patients who undergo metabolic surgery at Vanderbilt University Medical Center and follow them for up to 10 years after surgery. Fasting blood and stool samples will be collected at pre-surgery and 3-month and 1-year post-surgery clinical visits. Tissue samples (e.g., biopsies of the liver and adipose and remnants of the stomach) will be collected during operation. Meanwhile, participants will complete a REDCap survey at baseline and 1-year post-surgery. Participants' electronic medical records will be used to obtain additional information and facilitate long-term follow-up. The investigators will evaluate pre- to post-surgery changes in the fecal microbiome and fecal and blood levels of metabolites and the associations of microbiome and metabolites with CVD risk score and improvements in hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia after surgery. This study will advance our understanding of the role of gut microbiota in metabolic surgery, which may translate into novel approaches to identify and treat obese patients for better cardiometabolic health.

Nashville, TennesseeStart: August 2021
Ketamine Infusion vs Dexmedetomidine Infusion in Obese Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery

The surgeries that involve treatment of morbid obesity, i.e. bypass procedure and sleeve gastrectomy, are collectively covered under the term 'bariatric surgery'. The frequency of bariatric surgery has been increasing worldwide for patients with medically complicated obesity who have difficulty losing weight by other methods The growth of bariatric surgery is accompanied with development of anesthetic techniques to maintain patient safety and improve outcome. Treatment with narcotics in obese patients has dual effect. Increased use of narcotics are associated with multiple complications including Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) , respiratory depression and elevated risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) complications . On the other hand, the reduction in opioid use may result in acute post-operative pain that may limit post-surgery rehabilitation. Therefore, we need to minimize opioid use and employ some other drugs which, besides having analgesia, has an opioid-sparing effect also. Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, has analgesic properties in sub-anesthetic doses. When used in low dose (0.3 to 0.5 mg/kg) by ideal body weight, it is an analgesic, anti-hyperalgesic, and prevents development of opioid tolerance. Dexmedetomidine is selective α2-Adrenoceptor agonist that has been used as an adjuvant to anesthetic agents in perioperative period for several adventitious profile as well as tolerated side effects . While dexmedetomidine is emerging as a beneficial adjunct to the analgesic regimen in the perioperative period, its utilization is not routinely widespread .

CairoStart: April 2021
Sleeve Gastrectomy: Outcome, Morbidity and Mortality. A Multicentric Retrospective Trial

Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is currently the most frequent primary bariatric procedure performed worldwide. LSG is a safe and effective technique in terms of excess weight loss and it is, moreover, a powerful metabolic operation that activates significant hormonal pathways that lead to changes in eating behavior, glycemic control and intestinal functions.Regarding a technical point of view, LSG might be considered a time saving procedure for the absence of intestinal anastomosis. The most frequent and sometimes dangerous complications are leaking, hemorrhage, splenic injury, stenosis and Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Despite its established efficacy and safety, dispute still exists on the optimal conduction of LSG operative technique: bougie size, distance of resection margin from the pylorus, the shape of section at the gastroesophageal junction, staple line reinforcement and intraoperative leak testing are among the most controversial issues . Thus, the primary aim of the present retrospective multicentric study is to evaluate intra and peri-operatory (< 30 days) and post-operative (> 30 days) morbidity and mortality rates of patients undergone LSG, and the correlation of the latter rates with different surgical measures. Secondary aim is to evaluate the strategy for the treatment of the complication, and if there is a correlation between morbidity/mortality and volume of the Bariatric Center

Start: January 2015
Intestinal Microbiota and NAFLD Pre and Post Bariatric Surgery

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes benign hepatic simple steatosis (SS) and steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterised by inflammation leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, and the prevalence is 74-98% in morbidly obese individuals undergoing bariatric surgery. Although steatosis improves post bariatric surgery, hepatic inflammation and fibrosis do not consistently improve. Alterations of the human gut flora (intestinal microbiota; IM) may play a role. One mechanism linking IM to obesity, insulin resistance (IR), and NAFLD is through translocation of bacterial lipopolisaccharide (LPS=endotoxin) into the blood stream (=endotoxemia), causing chronic inflammation. Morbidly obese subjects have different IM compared to lean controls, and the IM structure is significantly altered after bariatric surgery, probably due to a combination of anatomic changes, diet, and weight loss. For example, the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes may be lower in obese subjects compared to lean controls and lower numbers of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were reported in some obese subjects before bariatric surgery, which increased 3 months post-surgery. This is of interest since, in animal studies, low abundance of F. prausnitzii, a butyrate producing bacterium, is associated with increased intestinal permeability, endotoxemia, and inflammation. To our knowledge, only two studies are available describing IM in patients pre and post bariatric surgery, and no data have been published on the relationship between IM and NAFLD in these patients.

Toronto, OntarioStart: June 2013
Comparison of Three Hypoabsortive Surgical Techniques for Treatment of Type IV Morbid Obesity

Morbid obesity is the first non-traumatic cause of death in the western population and it is also progressively beginning to affect the developing countries. Bariatric surgery provides better results than pharmacological treatments and lifestyle changes, granting a better control of comorbidities. Duodenal switch (DS) has proben to be the most effective surgical treatment for grade IV morbid obesity and its comorbidities. However, it is not widely used due to its technical complexity and the risk of long-term complications. Single Anastomosis Duodenum-Ileal bypass with Sleeve gastrectomy (SADI-S) was concieved in 2007 as a one-anastomosis simplification of DS, intended to diminish the surgical time and postoperative risks. Recently, another simplified hypo-absorptive technique has started to be widely used: the one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGBP), also called mini-gastric gypass. It consists of a gastric pouch associated with a gastro-jejunal anastomosis in omega (Billroth II). Despite the potential advantages of these emerging surgical techniques (SADI-S and OAGBP), there is no solid evidence on its efficacy for the treatment of grade IV obesity in comparison with DS. Besides, there is also there is a lack of studies reporting on prospective acid and bile reflux after omega digestive reconstructions, suche as "Billroth II-like" (SADI-S) and "Billroth II" (OAGBP). Bile reflux is potentially premalignant condition. This prospective randomized study aims to compare conventional DS with SADI-S and OAGBP. We include all morbidly obese patients with BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2 aged 18 years or more. Exclusion criteria are patients who do not fulfill our preoperative bariatric assessment for surgery and those with contraindications for hypo absorptive or mixed surgery. The main objective of the study is to compare the percentage of excess weight lost at 2 and 5 years after the three different surgical procedures. As a secondary objective, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) will be compared before and 2 years after surgery, based on GERD symptoms test, gastroscopy and a esophageal pH-impedanciometry in selected patients. Other secondary objectives are comparison of short-term complications, metabolic comorbidities, depositional habit, quality of life and metabolic and nutritional deficiencies at two years of surgery.

L'Hospitalet De Llobregat, BarcelonaStart: April 2021
Establishment of the Human Intestinal and Salivary Microbiota Biobank - Obesity

This is a prospective, clinical, multicentre study aimed to collect biological samples and study microbiota from subjects with morbid obesity, metabolically healthy obesity and from healthy volunteers. Microbiota is a complex consortium of microorganisms, located at the mucosal level (in particular intestinal, oral and vaginal) having a key role in human health and in the onset of several diseases. Microbiota alterations have been found in several diseases (gastrointestinal, metabolic, renal, oncological, gynaecological) The study will allow to: Provide biological samples (faeces, saliva, blood, urine) from healthy volunteers and patients to the first Italian microbiota biobank; Study microorganisms using different in vitro and in vivo techniques; Study the link between the microbiota and the disease. This study is part of the BIOMIS project (Project Code: ARS01_01220), presented as part of the "Avviso per la presentazione di progetti di ricerca industriale e sviluppo sperimentale nelle 12 aree di specializzazione individuate dal PNR 2015-2020" and admitted to funding under the National Operational Program "Ricerca e Innovazione" 2014-2020 by directorial decree of MIUR - Department for Higher Education and Research - n. 2298 of 12 September 2018. BIOMIS includes several clinical studies that enrol patients with different pathologies to collect and store biological samples and study microbiota.

BariStart: March 2021