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288 active trials for Major Depressive Disorder

Antidepressant Effects of TS-161 in Treatment-Resistant Depression

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, chronic mental illness. It can take weeks to months for antidepressants to work. Researchers want to test a new drug that might act more rapidly. Objective: To see if TS-161 will improve symptoms of depression in people with MDD. Eligibility: Adults ages 18-65 with MDD without psychotic features. Design: Participants will be screened under a separate protocol. They will have blood tests. They will complete surveys about their symptoms. Participants will have an inpatient visit at NIH. Participation may last 12-16 weeks. During the first phase of the study, participants will be tapered off their psychiatric medicines. For 2 weeks they will have a drug-free period. During Phase II participants will take TS-161 or placebo. They will take TS-161 for 3 weeks and placebo for 3 weeks. In between the 3-week time period, they will have 2-3 weeks where they will be drug free. Participants will also have the following tests during this time: Interviews Physical exams Psychological tests and surveys about their symptoms Blood draws and urine samples They may complete tests of mood and thinking MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging): Participants will lie in a machine that takes pictures of their brain. Functional MRIs: They will perform tasks displayed on a computer screen inside the MRI scanner MEG (magnetoencephalography): Participants will lie down and do tasks of memory, attention, and thinking. A cone lowered on their head will record brain activity. Electrocardiograms to record the heart s electrical activity. Electrodes will be placed on the skin....

Start: June 2021
The Effect of Celecoxib on Neuroinflammation in MDD

Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects an estimated 350 million people worldwide and is a leading contributor to global disease burden. Commonly used monoamine reuptake-inhibiting treatments for depression are suboptimal, resulting in only 30% of patients achieving remission. This may be because monoamine dysfunction is not the primary pathophysiology in all MDD patients. One avenue for the development of novel MDD treatments is through anti-inflammatory drugs; MDD is linked to a pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by microglial activation, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulation of cellular markers including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and translocator protein (TSPO; a protein located on the outer membrane of microglia). Relevant to this proposal, TSPO can serve as an in vivo marker of neuroinflammation using the newly developed positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for TSPO, [18F]FEPPA. In support of this, a recent [18F]FEPPA PET study found that MDD patients in a current major depressive episode (MDE) had significantly higher TSPO binding in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula, relative to healthy controls. The prefrontal cortex and ACC are both implicated in mood regulation whereas the insula is involved in interoceptive signaling, which is known to be abnormal in MDD. Celecoxib, a selective COX-2 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is a promising new treatment for neuroinflammation in MDD. Clinical studies have observed that, in a subset of depressed patients, celecoxib treatment reduced depression severity as assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). While these findings demonstrate that celecoxib reduces symptom severity, PET imaging technology is critical for understanding how celecoxib affects the underlying pathophysiology of depression. Here, the team will investigate neuroinflammation as an underlying pathology in depression and test whether neuroinflammation is reduced by celecoxib in MDD patients. Specifically, in the proposed pilot study, MDD patients in a current MDE will receive [18F]FEPPA PET scans prior to and following 8 weeks of treatment with 800mg/day of celecoxib, with HDRS scores obtained at each time point. The investigators hypothesize that following celecoxib treatment, patients will show a significant reduction in neuroinflammation in the PFC, ACC and insula, which will correlate positively with the reduction in depressive symptoms, as measured by the HDRS. The proposed study will use novel imaging technology, [18F]FEPPA PET, to measure the effects of celecoxib on neuroinflammation in MDD patients. Our results will help to 1) identify neuroinflammation as an underlying pathology in MDD and 2) test whether reduction of inflammation is the mechanism of action of celecoxib. As such, the results of this study will aid in the development of targeted clinical treatments to improve remission rates in MDD patients.

Start: August 2018