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176 active trials for Inflammation

The Psoriasis, Atherosclerosis, and Cardiometabolic Disease Initiative (PACI)

Background: - Cardiometabolic diseases are medical disorders that can occur together and affect the heart. They increase the risk of developing heart disease and diabetes. One disorder, psoriasis, is an inflammation that mostly affects the skin but can affect the entire body. Another disorder, atherosclerosis, is a process in which cholesterol is gradually deposited on the wall of arteries. This causes arteries to harden and become less flexible. Many cells that cause psoriasis also cause atherosclerosis. Researchers want to look at the relationship between cardiometabolic diseases and psoriasis. Objectives: - To study the relationship between psoriasis and cardiometabolic diseases. Eligibility: - Individuals at least 18 years of age who have psoriasis. Design: Participants will be screened with a physical exam and medical history. Participants will have up to seven outpatient visits over the 4 years. The first visit will be a screening visit. Visits 2 will be12 months after visit 1. Visits 3, 4, and 5, will be scheduled yearly for the next 3 years. If participants have a psoriasis flare with more severe symptoms, they may have an extra visit. Those who leave the study early will have a final visit with the full series of tests. At visits 1, 2,and 5, and any flare visits, participants will have a physical exam and medical history. They will provide blood and urine samples, as well as optional tissue biopsies. They will also have heart function tests. Imaging studies, as well as optional photographs of affected areas, will be performed. These tests will also be performed at the final visit. At visits 3 and 4, participants will have a physical exam and medical history. They will also provide blood and urine samples, and have heart function tests.

Start: January 2013
Natural History of the Human Biological Response to Environmental Exposure and Injury

Background: Environmental exposures like pollution, diet, and stress can help cause human diseases, or make them worse. Researchers want to better understand how injury and inflammation are caused by these exposures. They want to collect biological and environmental samples and other data. They may use the samples to measure a range of factors, like hormones, toxins, and chemicals. This will help them improve their studies. Objective: To identify and understand how environmental exposures contribute to human disease. Eligibility: Healthy adults ages 18 and older Design: Participants will be screened with questions about their health history, demographics, and medicines they take. Participants may give blood, hair, stool, saliva, and/or urine samples. They may have a skin punch biopsy to collect skin cells. They may give fingernail or toenail clippings. They may give a sample of exhaled breath. Participants may give a sputum sample. They will inhale a saline mist and cough mucus into a cup. Participants may have their nasal passages brushed, scraped, or washed. Participants may give cheek cell samples. They will swish mouthwash and spit it into a cup. Participants who produce sperm may give samples. Participants may have bronchoscopy to collect fluid. A saline solution will be put into their lung and then suctioned out, washing areas of the lung. Participants may have a pelvic or transvaginal ultrasound. They may have lung function tests. Participants may collect household dust, urine, or stool at home. Participants will complete surveys about their health, diet, and exposures. Participation will last for one or more study visits. Participants may be contacted in the future to take part in other studies.

Start: June 2021
Impacts of Lentils on Metabolism and Inflammation

The overall goal of this investigation is to determine gut microbiome dependent and independent impacts of pulse consumption on metabolic resilience and metabolic risk profiles for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Specifically, pulse crop consumption has unrealized potential to fundamentally alter how the body responds to disease promoting metabolic stresses of postprandial triglyceride and inflammation responses. The specific objectives are to (1) Determine the impact of green lentil consumption on postprandial triglyceride (TG) and inflammation responses to a high-fat meal challenge. (2) Determine the extent to which the gut microbiome and changes in the gut microbiome induced by pulse consumption influence health impacts (3) Measure metabolomic profiles to elucidate underlying mechanisms linking pulse consumption to improved health. To achieve these objectives investigators will determine the effects of green lentil on high impact risk factors of large postprandial triglyceride excursions and inflammation, composition of and changes in the gut microbiomes, and both gut and serum metabolomes in overweight/obese (OW/OB) individuals with elevated risk. The 12-week intervention will consist of consumption of 4.6 or 0 cups of pulses per week across 7 pre-made meals (matched for macronutrient content (except fiber) provided to experimental and control groups. The following hypotheses will be tested in the proposed investigation: H1: Lentil consumption lower postprandial TG and inflammation responses and improve overall metabolic health. H2: Characteristics of the gut microbiome and changes in the gut microbiome induced by lentil consumption substantially influence health impacts of pulse consumption. H3: Features of the fecal and serum metabolomes distinguishing lentil and control treatments correspond to metabolic pathways elucidating potential gut microbiome dependent and independent mechanisms linking pulse consumption to improved health.

Start: May 2020
Impact of 2.0g Daily of MAG-EPA on the AA/EPA Ratio and Inflammation Biomarkers in a Healthy Population Aged of 50+.

According to scientific literature, oils containing omega-3 fatty acids may decrease certain risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as blood pressure, blood level of triglycerides (TGs) and cholesterol. The omega-3 index (amount of EPA + DHA in the blood) is a recognized biomarker for assessing risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Its optimal value is 8% compared to the Canadian population average of only 4.5%. The scientific literature contains several good studies on omega-3 fatty acids, however, it is difficult to compare dose-response relationships between studies since formulations are not similar and markers of exposure to treatment are not standardized. The AA/EPA ratio, combined with the omega-3 index, is a good way to monitor the increase in omega-3 levels in the blood, but especially to determine the inflammatory status of a patient. Indeed, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is a fatty acid with inflammation-resolving properties, while arachidonic acid (AA) is a pro-inflammatory agent. A high AA/EPA ratio therefore indicates a high inflammatory status while a low ratio indicates a better balance between active inflammation and its resolution. Moreover, it was published in 2018 that a AA/EPA ratio of around 3 was directly associated with a 25% reduction in the relative risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the investigator wants to determine the minimum MAG-EPA dose needed to achieve an AA/EPA ratio equivalent to 4g of EPA in the form of ethyl ester (EE-EPA). It is reasonable to estimate that 2g of MAG-EPA should be sufficient to produce an average AA/EPA ratio around 3.1.

Start: April 2021
Antidepressant Trial With P2X7 Antagonist JNJ-54175446

Depression is one of the most important causes of disability in the world today, with major personal, social and economic costs. Although some moderately effective drug treatments are already available, about a third of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) remain depressed despite current treatment. There is growing evidence that inflammation - the response of the body's immune system to physical and social stresses - can cause depressive symptoms in some patients. It is therefore predicted that anti-inflammatory drugs could have anti-depressant effects and the research team aims to test this using a new drug, JNJ-54175446, which blocks the activity of a receptor called P2X7. P2X7 is present on many immune cells and plays a key role in the release of inflammatory molecules during stress, which may be linked to stress-related depression. The research team will recruit approximately up to 142 participants with MDD to this clinical trial. Patients will have moderate-severe depressive symptoms despite ongoing treatment with a conventional anti-depressant drug, and they will have blood test results at screening that indicate they are likely to have active P2X7 signalling in the brain. Eligible participants will be randomly allocated to receive either 50mg/day JNJ-54175446 or placebo for 8 weeks. Participants will be assessed at weeks 2, 5 and 8 using a standard clinical depression scale and the scores compared between those treated with placebo and those treated with JNJ-54175446. To understand more about the effects of JNJ-54175446 on the immune system and the brain, patients will also complete additional blood tests, questionnaires and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans at different visits throughout the trial. The trial will be carried out across 5 centres in the UK.

Start: September 2019