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71 active trials for Hearing Loss

Natural History of Autosomal Dominant Hearing Loss

Background: Hereditary hearing loss is one of the most common sensory disabilities affecting newborns. The main options for people with hereditary hearing loss are hearing aids and cochlear implants. Both options have their limitations and do not restore biological hearing. Researchers want to learn if gene editing might be a treatment option. Objective: To understand the genes that cause non-syndromic autosomal dominant hearing loss (DFNA) in people with DFNA as well as their family members. Eligibility: People age 3 99 who have DFNA, affected family members of enrolled participants with DFNA, and unaffected family members of enrolled participants Design: Participants will be screened with a medical and hearing history. Their medical records will be reviewed. Participants will have hearing tests. They will wear headphones or earplugs. They will listen to tones, sounds, and words and may be asked to describe what they hear. Participants will have balance tests. For these, they will wear googles as they watch moving lights or as cold or warm air is blown into their ears. They will sit in a spinning chair in a quiet, dark booth. From a reclined position, they will raise their head while listening to clicking sounds. Participants will have blood drawn through a needle in the arm. Some blood will be used for gene testing. Some participants will have 2 skin biopsies. The skin will be washed, and a numbing medicine will be injected. Two small pieces of skin will be removed. Participants may have a physical exam. Participation will last for up to 20 years. Participants may give medical updates once a year.

Start: February 2021
Investigating Disinhibitory Brain Mechanism in Tinnitus and Hearing Loss

Tinnitus, the perception of sound in the absence of an external acoustic stimulus. Tinnitus is often perceived inside the head rather than the ear and is a common condition with a prevalence estimated between 10 and 15% in adults. Between 1 and 3% of this population are having a significant impact on their quality of life. Despite its high prevalence, the underlying mechanisms of tinnitus still remain unclear. The majority of tinnitus cases associated with some degree of hearing loss, making hearing loss the biggest risk factor for tinnitus. Recently, it has been suggested that hearing deficits, such as speech-in-noise difficulty, can exist in the absence of any overt hearing loss within the audiometric range (0.125-8 kHz). This is referred to as "hidden hearing loss" and has been suggested to be associated with hearing loss at above-audiometric (> 8 kHz) frequencies. This project is aimed at studying the underlying mechanisms of tinnitus and the possible relation with overt or hidden hearing loss. Specifically, the investigators want to test the hypothesis that tinnitus is caused by maladaptive plasticity arising as a result of auditory input deprivation. This idea is supported by the finding that tinnitus may disappear when the hearing, and thus auditory input, recover. Disruptions at lower levels of the auditory pathway could lead to alterations in synaptic transmission and neurotransmitter release in more central regions of the auditory system (e.g., in the auditory cortex). This may create an imbalance between neuronal excitation and inhibition, and re-routing of auditory pathways, leading to abnormal neural excitability and connectivity. In this study, the investigators question whether auditory cortex disinhibition is specifically related to tinnitus, or is a consequence of hearing loss. To answer this question, the investigators propose to conduct a study that aims to investigate the inhibition mechanism by quantifying GABA concentration level, neural activity and functional connectivity strength of auditory cortex using non-invasive imaging techniques, namely Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). The investigators expected to possibly provide a tinnitus biomarker, and this may help to direct future treatments.

Start: April 2021