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9 active trials for Efficacy

The OPTIMAL TDM Study: Determining Optimal Beta-lactam Plasma Concentrations Through Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

Little is known of beta-lactam antibiotics' true therapeutic plasma concentration range. The aims of this study are to define evidence-based, safe and effective upper and lower limits of the plasma concentrations of imipenem, meropenem, amoxicillin, flucloxacillin, piperacillin, ceftazidime and cefepime in patients at increased risk of serious bacterial infections and currently understudied pharmacokinetics (the critically ill, the elderly, and the immunosuppressed). This prospective observational study will include adult patients with suspected or confirmed systemic bacterial infection receiving one of the above-named antibiotics and hospitalized in intensive-care, step-down, or hematology-oncology units of the Geneva University Hospitals (HUG). Eligible patients will be identified via the electronic health record (EHR). Patients receiving traditional intermittent dosing or prolonged infusions will undergo TDM for at least one intermediate (mid-interval) and one trough level at 24 hours (-12 or +48 hours) after the therapy's start. Patients receiving continuous infusions will undergo TDM for at least one steady-state level. Clinical course will be observed for 30 days from the start of the study antibiotic (1st day of study antibiotic =day 1). The primary outcome is incidence of clinical toxicity through day 30 after start of study antibiotic (as stratified by BL trough concentration). Secondary outcomes are listed below.

Start: January 2019
RCT of Efficacy and Safety of Sedation Compared to General Anesthesia for ERCP

There is a worldwide trend to minimally invasive interventions, which results in increasing numbers of interventions performed outside of the operating room. Currently, approximately 12 to 15% of total anaesthetic workload is non-operating room anaesthesia (NORA) and this anaesthetic activity is increasing. Many of these interventions need supplementary comfort measures to have relaxed patients and high success rates. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) is performed >50,000 times per year in the U.S.,and is a typical minimally invasive intervention that needs patient sedation. There is a controversy about the optimal comfort intervention in minimally invasive interventions and in particular in ERCP. Two different approaches to insure patients' comfort have been proposed: general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation or sedation with spontaneous ventilation. Well-performed studies on sedation versus general anaesthesia using a randomized controlled trial design with observer blinding will contribute to improve the decision-making for the optimal comfort measures in minimally invasive procedures. At our knowledge such a randomized controlled trial has not been reported before. The investigators hypothesize that deep sedation without tracheal intubation will achieve similar success rates for ERCP as general anaesthesia and will have similar rates of harmful postoperative effects. The primary aim of this trial is to demonstrate that the success rate of ERCP is not inferior in patients randomized to deep sedation without orotracheal intubation vs general anesthesia with orotracheal intubation. Secondary aims include a comparison between randomization groups of patient safety, patient and endoscopist satisfaction, duration of patient recovery and of anesthesia procedure.

Start: February 2014
Multitarget Therapy for Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy

Membranous nephropathy (MN) is one of the commonest causes of nephrotic syndrome in adults, idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) accounts for 70%-80% of all MN patients. There is no standard specific treatment for IMN. Initial therapy should be supportive and involves restricting dietary protein and sodium intake, controlling blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, and edema. The best proven therapy for patients with IMN is combined use of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide. However, there are some potential risk of other serious side effects associated with the use of cytotoxic agents, such as bone marrow toxicity, severe infections, gonadal dysfunction, and the long-term risk of malignancy. The ideal maintenance treatment scheme for patients with IMN requires not only a remission of nephrotic syndrome but also, fewer adverse effects. Some retrospective study suggested that multitarget therapy (prednisone+calcineurin inhibitors+mycophenolate mofetil) was effective for refractory IMN. However, we cannot get confirmed conclusion from the previous study due to the limitation of retrospective studies with small sample size. In this prospective multicenter randomized trial, we compared the efficacy between multitarget therapy and Ponticelli regimen. Trial Aims and Hypothesis The specific aims of this trial are to test the hypothesis that multitarget therapy is non-inferior to Ponticelli regimen in inducing long-term remission (CR or PR) of proteinuria in patients with IMN. that multitarget therapy reduces the number of relapses (efficacy in sustaining remission) and increases the time to relapse when compared with treatment with Ponticelli regimen. that multitarget therapy has a better side-effect profile when compared with treatment with Ponticelli regimen in patients with IMN. Methods: Patient Recruitment Inclusion and exclusion criteria are as follows. Inclusion Criteria: Age: 18-70 years. Body weight: 50-90 kg. Patients with membranous nephropathy were eligible if their diagnosis was confirmed by renal biopsy, with the biopsy sample examined by light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. Renal biopsy samples were reviewed by the two principal investigators and two renal pathologists. IMN patients with moderate risk and have a decline of less than 50% in proteinuria despite renin-angiotensin system blockade for at least 6 months before randomization. OR, IMN patients with high risk or very high risk. Serum albumin < 30 g/L. eGFR by MDRD formula had to be ? 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Exclusion criteria: Secondary MN, pregnancy, breastfeeding, immunosuppressive treatment in the 3 preceding months, and active infectious disease. Hepatitis B serology included Hbs antigen and Hbs and Hbc antibodies. Patients with active hepatitis B and those with past hepatitis B infection without anti-Hbs antibodies will be excluded. Patients with reproductive demand will be excluded. Randomization and Treatment Groups Once all entry criteria have been satisfied and confirmed, patients will be randomized to treatment with multitarget therapy or Ponticelli regimen. Multitarget therapy: Combination with prednisone, ciclosporin and mycophenolate mofetil. Ponticelli regimen: Cyclical corticosteroid/alkylating-agent therapy for IMN. Outcomes Primary outcome: The primary clinical outcome was the composite of complete or partial remission at 12 months. Secondary outcome: the composite of complete or partial remission at 6 months; complete remission at 6 months; and adverse events, relapse.

Start: June 2020