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18 active trials for Drug Abuse

Neurobiological Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Treatment in Alcohol Use Disorder

Background: Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is a complex psychiatric disorder, involving several brain areas and neurocircuits. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) allows to stimulate superficial areas of brain using a weak electrical current. Preliminary data suggest that tDCS may reduce alcohol craving and consumption. Objectives: The main outcome is to test if tDCS can reduce alcohol craving and use and to assess the changes in BDNF and pro-BDNF levels. Secondary outcomes are the assessment of other psychiatric dimensions (mood, behavioral and cognitive alterations) associated with prolonged alcohol use. Eligibility: Healthy, right-handed adults ages 18-65 who do have AUD (moderate to severe). Design: This is a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study with three phases: 1) a tDCS intensive treatment phase; 2) follow-up with weekly tDCS stimulation; 3) follow-up without tDCS stimulation. Participants will be screened with: Psychometric Scales Medical history Physical exam Urine tests and breathalyzer After being enrolled, baseline behavioral and laboratory data will be collected. In particular, participants will undergo: Psychometric Scales Venous blood sample (BDNF/proBDNF levels) Participants will be randomized to real or sham tDCS arm. The stimulation will be delivered daily for five days during the first week (intensive treatment phase) and then weekly for 3 months (follow-up with stimulation). During this period patient will be tested with a behavioral and psychometric evaluation.Therefore, participants will receive 3 follow-up monthly visits without tDCS stimulation, in which behavioral and psychometric data will be collected. Treatment includes: tDCS: The tDCS will be delivered with a stimulator connected to two sponge electrodes, soaked in a saline solution. The stimulation will be administered at a current intensity of approximately 1 mA, for the duration of 20 minutes. The anode will be placed on the right DLPFC, the cathode on the contralateral cortical area. BDNF/proBDNF levels: A venous blood sample will be collected before the first stimulation and after the last stimulation of the intensive-stimulation period (first week). The blood sample will be centrifuged within 20 minutes of sampling at 1000 × g for 15 minutes. Then, the serum will be aliquoted and stored at -80 ° C until analysis. Repeat of screening tests and questionnaires Urine toxicological screen and breathalyzer

Start: July 2021
Delivering Contingency Management in Outpatient Addiction Treatment

Methamphetamine misuse has become a growing concern in Alberta, creating a burden on the health care system. Further, individuals who use methamphetamine in Alberta exhibit significant difficulty remaining in treatment. These troubling patterns necessitate the provision of evidence-based practices (EBPs)-those grounded in empirical evidence-to ensure the best possible care and outcomes for those struggling with this addiction. Within the field of substance use (SU), contingency management (CM) is an extensively studied evidence-based treatment (EBT) for addictive disorders. CM is an intervention that provides incentives to encourage positive behavioural change. Compared to standard care (treatment-as-usual (TAU)), CM has resulted in improvements in abstinence, attendance, adherence, retention, and quality of life. The efficacy of CM has largely been investigated in the context of reinforcing abstinence, though the literature suggests that CM which reinforces attendance may be as effective. Research from the US has examined the cost-effectiveness of CM and found that although CM costs more, it was associated with greater abstinence, treatment completion, and substance-absent urine compared to TAU. Despite the promising literature, the uptake of CM in Canada is limited making it difficult to understand whether this EBT is equally efficacious as compared to the US. This study will implement and evaluate the efficacy of virtually delivered attendance-based CM in outpatient addiction treatment in Alberta. Participants (N=544) will be individuals seeking treatment for methamphetamine use (n=304) and individuals seeking treatment for substance use issues other than methamphetamine use (n=240). It is hypothesized that compared to participants in TAU, participants in CM will evidence: (1) greater retention, (2) greater attendance, (3) greater abstinence from methamphetamine and less methamphetamine use, (4) greater abstinence from other SU and less SU, and (5) greater improvement in quality of life over the intervention and follow-up periods. Exploratory aims include understanding how: outcomes differ based remote versus in-person delivery of CM; outcomes differ between participants who use methamphetamine and participants who use substances other than methamphetamine; the costs of CM differ from TAU; CM changes health service use.

Start: March 2021
Factors Predicting Outcome in Group Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs)

Harmful alcohol use is a global risk factor for disease, injuries and death. Research on treatment of Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) indicates that different treatment modalities are equally effective, but also that a large group of patients do not change their drinking pattern despite being in treatment. It is assumed that it is not random who benefits from treatment. Thirty to forty percent of outcome variance in treatment is probably explained by patient factors, and we need more knowledge on how different patient factors moderate treatment effects. Further, clinicians also need more knowledge about selecting patients to different therapies. The present study will investigate how patient factors predict outcome in group treatment of AUDs, and what predicts positive treatment outcomes over time. The study is designed as a quasi-experimental, multi-centre, follow-up study. Patients will be included from Vestfold Hospital Trust, Borgestadklinikken, Blue Cross Clinic, Behandlingssenteret Eina, Blue Cross Clinic and A-senteret, Oslo, Church City Mission. The Project will provide more knowledge about patients seeking treatment for AUDs, and specifically how patient factors predict outcome in group treatment. These results will in turn lead to better selection of treatment modalities, and patients will receive a more effective treatment earlier on. Main aims: 1) How do patient factors predict outcome in group treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs)? 2) Do positive treatment outcomes last over time? Specifically, do the following factors: a) psychiatric comorbidity b) severity of alcohol use pre-treatment c) personality disorders and d) cognitive impairments predict 1) completion of group treatment and 2) positive outcome after 1 year. As an additional aim, we will investigate if the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MoCa) is feasible as a brief screening instrument for mild cognitive impairments for AUD patients.

Start: February 2021
Motivational Strategies in Batterer Intervention Programs for Offenders With Alcohol/Drug Abuse Problems (IMP-ADAPs)

Alcohol and/or drug abuse problems (ADAPs) have been consistently identified in the scientific literature as a risk factor of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW). Around 50% of IPVAW offenders referred to batterer intervention programs (BIPs) have ADAPs. ADAPs are also one of the main predictors of BIPs dropout. In Spain, the majority of BIPs do not fit the intervention to specific needs or characteristics of IPVAW offenders, such as those with ADAPs. The aim of this research is to assess the effectiveness of a new motivational strategy adapted to IPVAW offenders with ADAPs, aiming to increase treatment adherence and to improve BIPs outcomes. The motivational strategy will include an individualized motivational plan (IMP) developed for each participant with ADAPs (IMP-ADAPs). In these IMPs one of the main aims will be to reduce alcohol and/or drug consumption. The current study will use a randomized control trial. Participants with ADAPs will be allocated to one of two treatment conditions: experimental condition: Standard batterer intervention program (SBIP) plus individualized motivational plan focused in ADAPs (SBIP+ ADAPs-IMP), and control condition: Standard batterer intervention program plus individualized motivational plan (SBIP+IMP). Primary/final outcomes will be recidivism and ADAPs reduction. Secondary/proximal outcomes will include treatment adherence related variables, violence related attitudes and attributions, self-control and psychological adjustment. Outcome variables will be assessed at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at six months after the intervention will be finished.

Start: March 2019