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16 active trials for Deep Brain Stimulation

Ketamine in Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Surgery

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established and effective treatment for motor symptoms resulting from idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). During the DBS surgery , a brain electrode is implanted in the basal ganglia, which is involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. The surgery consists of three steps: 1. Opening the skin, drilling the skull bone and inserting a temporary electrode. 2. Recording electrical activity of the brain, electrical stimulation of the brain which guide the implantation of the electrode.3 Transferring wires and implanting a subcutaneous pacemaker battery in the chest area. Today, standard treatment protocols consist undergoing the second stage (or first and second stage, depending on the treatment center protocol) of the surgery awake (under local anesthesia only). As systemic anesthetics affect cerebral electrical activity and prevent patient cooperation, they inhibit precise identification of the cerebral target under 'physiological navigation' guided by electrical recording and brain stimulation. As a result, the accuracy of electrode implantation decreases. However, undergoing surgery in an awake format often causes severe patient discomfort and anxiety necessitating shortening the length of surgery or aborting the surgery. As such there is a need for establishing an alternative anesthesia protocol for DBS surgeries. Ketamine is considered a unique anesthetic due to its hypnotic properties, analgesia, and possible amnesia. Standard doses of ketamine are currently used worldwide to treat patients with various injuries and brain diseases. Research from monkeys has shown that ketamine (in low dose) does not affect electrical brain activity used for physiological navigation. The investigators therefore propose a prospective , randomized , blinded study to evaluate the utility of low dose of ketamine in the second stage of DBS surgeries for increasing patient satisfaction and cooperation without detracting from the accuracy of physiological navigation to the cerebral target. This study will compare two treatment arms : Treatment arm consisting of patients randomized to receive a low dose of ketamine for the second stage of DBS surgery. Control arm consisting of patients randomized to receive sham control of saline during the second stage of DBS surgery.

Start: January 2021
Deep Brain Stimulation With LIFUP for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Alzheimer's Disease

The purpose of the proposed study is to determine the feasibility of brief brain stimulation, using a device called Low Intensity Focused Ultrasound Pulsation (LIFUP), for persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild (early-stage) Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a secondary aim, the investigators will explore whether this brief intervention is associated with improvements in cognitive functioning immediately and one week following the intervention. Subjects will be randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: either the LIFUP administration will be designed to increase the activity of neurons in a certain part of the brain or decrease the activity of neurons. The investigators will study up to 8 subjects with MCI or mild AD. Initially, subjects will undergo a screening assessment with a study physician to determine medical and psychiatric history, establish AD diagnosis, and undergo a blood draw, if standard recent labs for dementia and EKG are unavailable. Subjects that meet criteria and agree to participate in the study will undergo a follow-up visit. In the baseline measurement visit, participants will first undergo neuropsychological testing. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of two LIFUP pulsing paradigms. Participants will then be administered four successive LIFUP treatments while the participants are in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sixty minutes following the administration, participants will undergo a second neuropsychological test. A final follow-up assessment will be administered at one week.

Start: November 2018