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600 active trials for Colorectal Cancer

Colonoscopy and FIT as Colorectal Cancer Screening Test in the Average Risk Population

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of death in Sweden. There are approximately 6000 new cases each year in Sweden and the disease specific mortality is more than 40%. There risk is about 1% to develop CRC between 60-70 years of age making 60-year olds a suitable target population for colorectal cancer screening. The Swedish ministry of health and social affairs proposed a national study on the efficiency of colorectal cancer screening in the Swedish population regarding mortality, but also what screening method to be used. Eighteen participating counties of Sweden now fund the study to be launched in 2014. From the Register of the total population individuals 59-62 years of age will be randomized and invited by mail to screening. Thirty- thousand five hundred individuals will be invited to primary colonoscopy and 60 000 individuals will be invited to high sensitive FIT (approximately 10% positive) and if positive to a subsequent follow-up colonoscopy. If test negative a second round of FIT will be asked for in two years. In total 183 000 randomized individuals will not be invited to screening, but followed in the Swedish Cancer register and serve as controls. The inclusion period I set to five years (five years with the second round of FIT) generating approximately 5 000 colonoscopies yearly the first three years and 1200 year four and five at a compliance rate of 35% in the colonoscopy arm and 50% in the FIT arm. Follow-up time is set to 15 years with the primary endpoint disease specific mortality, but also incidence. Secondary outcomes by others to be studied are in short quality assurance variables of colonoscopy, participants and non-participants experiences of the invitation and the screening procedure, health economy measures of the CRC-screening study and when implemented in clinical care.

Start: March 2014
General Practitioners and Participation Rate in ColoRectal Cancer Screening

Colorectal cancer is the 2nd leading cause of cancer mortality in France. However this cancer is preventable in the majority of cases by early detection of adenomas. In France, there is organized colorectal cancer screening, which relies on general practitioners (GPs). Tests delivered by GPs are performed in 89% of cases. However, GPs do not systematically offer the test, for time management and communication reasons. Patients expect their GPs to offer the test and to focus on their expectations. A previous study conducted on GPs showed that training in communication and motivational interviewing increases the number of tests performed by 12.2%. In order to facilitate the promotion of screening, the investigators would like to develop a training programme for GPs focusing on the application of Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques to the promotion of colorectal cancer screening. Motivational Interviewing is a directive, client-centered counseling style for eliciting behavior change by helping clients to explore and resolve ambivalence. This study is a multicenter trial in general medicine. In this randomized trial the 902 subjects will be included prospectively by the general practitioners (GP) participating in the study. As a first step, general practitioners who have never participated in Motivational Interviewing training will be recruited and split into 2 groups by randomization, an intervention group and a control group. The interventional group will then undergo a 3 times 2-day training in Motivational Interviewing. In a second step, the patients will be included by those GP and a self-questionnaire will be send at the inclusion and after 6, 12 and 24 months. The evaluation of the number of tests performed and the analyse of the Health Belief Model (HBM) self-questionnaire will be carried out. At 24 months, there will be an evaluation of the denial motivation questionnaire for patients who have not participated in organized colorectal cancer screening.

Start: May 2021
Prospective Data Collection Initiative on Colorectal Cancer

Survival after colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis strongly depends on local tumor extent, lymph node involvement and the presence of distant metastases. However, there remains great inter-patient variability regarding treatment outcome. A combination of biochemical factors, histopathological features, genomic profile, environmental factors and other clinical factors are likely to influence prognosis and treatment effect, independent from tumor stage, but it is still unclear which, how, and to what extent these factors can influence tumor recurrence and mortality in both early stage (I-III) and late stage (IV) CRC. Although the results from prospective clinical trials will remain the backbone of evidence based medicine, this concerns a highly selected patient population since the large majority (85%-95%) of cancer patients do not participate in clinical trials for various reasons. It is unlikely that trial participation will significantly improve in the near future. This fact has the following implications: 1) It is highly desirable to validate the results from trials in the general patient population. However, this is complicated by the fact that the documentation of patients treated in general practice (i.e. outside the scope of clinical trials) is largely insufficient to provide comparable patient cohorts in terms of prognostic characteristics and treatment parameters. 2) There is an increased availability of novel technologies that provide molecular markers with potential prognostic and/or predictive value. To test the clinical value of these markers large numbers of patients are required which greatly exceeds the number of patients who consent to participate in prospective clinical trials. 3) as a result of rapid technical developments, a range of new minimally invasive treatment options for CRC are entering the market. These interventions have the potential to be of great benefit for patients in terms of improved local control, higher probability of complete tumor removal, less damage to surrounding tissue, faster recovery and less short and long term side effects. Still, the interventions will have to prove their effectiveness, safety and superiority (or non-inferiority) to standard cancer treatments on a patient level. A prospective observational cohort study has the great opportunity to fill this gap.

Start: May 2013
Virtual Reality for Improving Pain and Distress in Patients With Advanced Stage Colorectal Cancer

Patients with advanced colorectal cancer often experience high levels of debilitating pain and pain-related psychological distress. Pain in cancer patients is typically treated with analgesics. There is growing agreement that non-pharmacological pain management strategies are needed to treat pain in advanced cancer patients. Recent evidence suggests Virtual Reality (VR) experiences can lead to reductions in acute pain; however, VR has not been tested in advanced cancer patients having persistent pain. VR could represent a valuable addition to our current armamentarium of treatments for persistent pain in palliative care patients. VR provides individuals with an immersive computer-generated environment that can reduce pain, tension and distress. The proposed study builds upon and extends preliminary research in healthy participants conducted by Luana Colloca, MD, PhD. Dr. Colloca is a consultant on this project and the proposed study would be the first to extend VR Blue to a clinical population and test its effects on clinical pain. The objective is to gather initial data on advanced colorectal cancer patients' immediate response to a single VR session. The investigators will examine feasibility, acceptability, safety, and impact of exposure to VR Blue on the clinical pain experience of advanced colorectal cancer patients. The study will collect data on pain, tension and distress pre-, midpoint, and post-VR. The investigators will also examine how pre- to post-VR changes in key cognitive variables (i.e., pain catastrophizing, pain self-efficacy) relate to VR-related changes in pain, tension and distress. The investigators will also collect qualitative data following participants' VR experience to better understand patients' preferences, thoughts and feelings about the VR experience. Data will be used to optimize VR Blue for future study, including developing an intervention to support a multi-session VR protocol for advanced colorectal cancer patients. The proposed study represents the first step in a program of clinical research that seeks to test the efficacy of VR in improving pain and pain-related symptoms in advanced colorectal cancer patients. In the proposed study, the investigators will collect quantitative and qualitative data on the impact of VR Blue on pain and pain-related outcomes in 20 advanced colorectal cancer patients.

Start: March 2020
Stool DNA to Improve Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Alaska Native People

Only 59% of Alaska Native people have been adequately screened for colorectal cancer (CRC) despite having the highest reported incidence of CRC in the world. A new at-home multi-target stool DNA screening test (MT-sDNA; Cologuard®) with high sensitivity for pre-cancerous polyps and CRC is now available. MT-sDNA has not been tested for feasibility or acceptability within the Alaska tribal health care delivery system, and it is unknown whether use of this new test will increase Alaska Native CRC screening rates. The long-term study goal is to improve screening and reduce CRC-attributable mortality. The objective of this application is to test the effectiveness of MT-sDNA for increasing CRC screening in Alaska Native communities using a mixed methods, community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach. The study will be conducted in collaboration with regional Tribal health organizations responsible for providing health care to geographically remote Alaska Native communities. Although the proposed implementation strategy is evidence-informed and promising, it is novel in that MT-sDNA has not been evaluated in the tribal health setting or among rural/remote populations. Using the Social Ecological Model, the research will be multi-level, examining influence on patients, providers, and tribal health organizations (THOs). This research study will pursue two specific aims: (1) Identify patient-, provider-, and system-level factors associated with CRC screening preferences, uptake, and follow-up; and (2) test the effectiveness of graded intensity MT-sDNA intervention in the Alaska Native community setting. For the first aim, focus groups with Alaska Native people who are not adherent to CRC screening guidelines and interviews with healthcare providers will be used to identify factors for future intervention. For the second aim, a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial (high intensity with patient navigation, medium intensity with mailed reminders, usual care) will provide evidence on the MT-sDNA usefulness (MT-sDNA sample quality and neoplastic yield) as well as the first data on MT-sDNA follow up adherence rates in the Alaska Native population, which will inform plans to scale-up the intervention model. This research has the potential to sustainably improve public health by increasing CRC screening rates among a rural/remote tribal population as well as provide a model for other integrated health systems that provide care to high-risk or underserved populations in the U.S. and worldwide.

Start: March 2021