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19 active trials for AIDS

COVID-19 CoronaVac in Patients With Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases and HIV/AIDS

Patients with chronic rheumatic diseases (such as systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], rheumatoid arthritis [RA], ankylosing spondylitis [AS], juvenile idiopathic arthritis [JIA], poly/dermatomyositis [PM/DM], systemic sclerosis [SSc], systemic vasculitis, and primary Sjögren's syndrome [pSS]) are particularly susceptible to infectious diseases due to autoimmune disorder itself and its treatment (immunosuppressive therapies). Similarly, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are predisposed to infections by different agents. The current 2019 Coronavirus Disease Pandemic-19 (COVID-19), caused by the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) began in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and quickly became a global health and economic emergency by taking to an unprecedented burden on health systems around the world. However, SARS-Cov-2 infection raised particular concern in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (DRAI) since, due to chronic inflammatory immune dysregulation and the regular use of immunosuppressive drugs, these patients are considered to be at high risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 and potentially evolving to a worse prognosis. The overlap between the COVID-19 pandemic and the HIV/AIDS pandemic also poses an additional challenge, as the impact of co-infection is not yet fully known. The response to vaccines for other agents, however, has already been described as compromised in PLWHA. Vaccination is the most effective preventive measure to control the spread of coronavirus and to reduce associated complications. Usually, live or attenuated vaccines are not recommended for patients with chronic rheumatic diseases using immunosuppressants. However, immunization with inactivated agents is strongly indicated, resulting, in general, in good immunogenicity and adequate vaccine safety, as well as without relevant deleterious effects on diseases. Vaccine efficacy studies are needed to verify the immunogenicity of the vaccine against COVID-19 in immunosuppressed patients with rheumatological disease and those with HIV-related disease considering the risk of greater severity. In addition, it is important to assess the safety of the vaccine in this population as well as the possibility of reactivating the rheumatological disease itself. The present study will evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the CoronaVac (Coronavirus vaccine, Sinovac Biotech Ltd.) in patients with rheumatic diseases and PLWHA

Start: February 2021
Adolescent to Adult Patient-centered HIV Transition (ADAPT) Study

One of the distinct challenges faced by emerging adults with HIV is the transition of their care from their long-term pediatric HIV provider to treatment within an adult HIV program. The consequences of an unsuccessful transition can range from difficult to catastrophic. The Adolescent to Adult Patient-centered HIV Transition (ADAPT) Study is a prospective cohort trial of an innovative intervention targeting gaps in care that are major drivers of loss in the ART continuum of care cascade among adolescents and increasing missed opportunities to engage adolescents into care. The specific aims of ADAPT are: 1. To inform strategies for transition services in resource-limited settings; 2. To examine the developmental, clinical, and other factors that predict a successful transition; and, 3. To gain fundamental insight on implementation barriers among African adolescents through the application of the ego-network defined social support that will inform targets for structured intervention. ADAPT will be conducted in central, southern, and northern Nigeria at selected PEPFAR sites supported by the Institute of Human Virology, Nigeria. To address Aim 1 the investigators will conduct six focus groups including: Adolescent patients, parents and health care providers. To address aim 2, the investigators will conduct a cluster randomized clinical trial. The two interventions are based on prior evidence-informed engagement strategies: 1) educational interventions and 2) interventions that use a peer transition advocate who prepares the adolescent and their parents for transition. The investigators will enroll 300 patients (150 patients in each arm). The sites will be assigned to either the intervention arm or a control arm. The primary outcome will be successful transition, keeping two follow-up appointments within a nine months period following transition. Secondary outcomes, as recommended by focus group participants will also be measured. To examine the potential role of social network components and characteristics of both egos and alters on primary outcomes, a Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) approach will be used to explore the associations between primary outcomes and factors at the ego, alter, and network levels. The finding from this study will guide institution of best practices for transitioning adolescents in Nigeria and other countries lower and middle income countries with similar challenges and potential for high impact.

Start: November 2019
Community-Based Model for Delivery of Antiretroviral Therapy in Cambodia

The community-based ART delivery (CAD) model will build on the existing framework to engage community action, operationalized in the current Global Fund-supported project. Community Action Workers (CAW), who are assigned to ART centers and conduct outreach work, are well-suited to administer CAD scheme. KHANA and the project partners all have implementation roles in the Global Fund-supported project and established working channels with the CAW. While the previous experiences suggest the CAD model's effectiveness, implementing it in Cambodia requires adaptation to its specific local context. The proposed project will be implemented as an implementation study in nine ART sites and supported by a concrete evaluation plan. KHANA Center for Population Health Research will lead the research component. The project has three strategic areas and corresponding deliverables as follows: A. The development of a locally-fitted model: bringing ART closer to the people living with HIV B. The research: formulation, evaluation, documentation, and dissemination of the evidence, knowledge, and lessons learned C. The scale-up: advocacy for the SOP development to replicate/scale-up the CAD model The project will benefit a wide range of stakeholders. The approximately 2,000 ART clients enrolled in the nine selected clinics will face less cost, time, and discrimination, which will also benefit their families. The clinics will have a reduced workload on site, and they would be able to improve the quality of care for the visiting clients. The Cambodian health system will obtain a CAD model tailored to the country's local context and develop Standard Operating Procedures for the scheme with readily involved stakeholders. The scale-up of the model will benefit all other ART clinics and clients in the country. The 36-months project starting from June 1, 2019, will include six months of start-up and baseline assessments, 24-month intervention, and six-month evaluation.

Start: April 2021
Enhanced Access to HIV Care for Drug Users in San Juan, Puerto Rico

The overall goal of this project is to implement and evaluate a community-level, structured approach to enhance HIV care access and retention for drug users in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The "Enhanced HIV Care Access and Retention Intervention" will: 1) identify drug users living with HIV who either do not know their HIV status and/or are not engaged in HIV care; 2) provide direct HIV care services through a mobile health van; and 3) support identified HIV-infected drug users with patient navigators to enhance their ability to engage in HIV care and substance abuse treatment, to initiate antiretroviral therapy, and maintain adherence to their treatment regimens. The structural enhanced care approach will be evaluated through a randomized roll-out design, a refinement of the stepped-wedge design. The community-level success of the intervention will be assessed by evaluating virologic suppression (primary biological outcome), increased attendance to HIV care visits, uptake of antiretroviral therapy, adherence to HIV treatment regimens, and decreased substance use (as secondary behavioral outcomes) in an independent cohort of HIV-positive individuals drawn from each of the neighborhoods included in the intervention. The investigators will also evaluate the implementation process and cost of the enhanced care approach including implications for cost-effectiveness, feasibility of expansion, and sustainability.

Start: December 2013