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158 active trials for Septic Shock

Interstitial Fluid Composition in Patients With Septic Versus Non-septic Shock: an Exploratory Pilot Study

Septic shock is a common reason for admission to intensive care units and severe infections are responsible for 6 million deaths a year worldwide. Fluid management appears to be a major issue in resuscitation and particularly in septic shock, where generalised oedema is almost systematic and is a major factor in poor prognosis during sepsis. The formation of oedema corresponds to an imbalance, according to Frank-Starling's law of the heart, between the vascular compartment and the interstitial compartment, which is composed of the interstitial liquid and an extracellular matrix. This extracellular matrix consists essentially of a network of collagen and fibroblast fibres. Even though all of the plasma in the body transits through the interstitium in 24 hours and desite its major importance in the microenvironment and intercellular communication, the interstitial compartment has not been fully described. In oncology, interstitial tissue seems to contribute to tumour growth through changes in matrix composition and pressure in the interstitium. This pressure actively contributes to the regulation of transcapillary filtration, and thus to the oedema and hypovolemia observed during sepsis. In usual conditions, the fibroblasts exert a tension on the collagen fibres of the matrix via integrin Beta-1 (ITGB1). This tension is released under the action of pro-inflammatory mediators, resulting in negative pressure which potentiates the formation of oedema. It has been shown in an endotoxemia model that there is a thousandfold higher concentration of ITGB1 in the interstitium compared to the vascular compartment, suggesting a local secretion of this cytokine. The alteration of the extracellular matrix could also play a role in the perpetuation of oedema during septic shock. Considered as an organ in its own right, interstitial tissue is far from playing a passive role between the vascular compartment and the cells. The hypothesis is that interstitial fluid analysis could improve our understanding of the physiopathology of sepsis, in particular on the alteration of the mechanisms of fluid movement regulation, which remains very poorly understood while being closely associated with prognosis in patients with sepsis.

DijonStart: January 2021
European/Euro-ELSO Survey on Adult and Neonatal/ Pediatric COVID-19 Patients in ECMO

In the last 10 years, severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) was responsible of multiple outbreaks putting a strain on the public health worldwide. Indeed, SARI had a relevant role in the development of pandemic and epidemic with terrible consequences such as the 2009 H1N1 pandemic which led to more than 200.000 respiratory deaths globally. In late December 2019, in Wuhan, Hubei, China, a new respiratory syndrome emerged with clinical signs of viral pneumonia and person-to-person transmission. Tests showed the appearance of a novel coronavirus, namely the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Two other strains, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have caused severe respiratory illnesses, sometimes fatal. In particular, the mortality rate associated with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, was of 10% and 37% respectively. Even though COVID-19 appeared from the first time in China, quickly it spread worldwide and cases have been described in other countries such as Thailand, Japan, South Korea, Germany, Italy, France, Iran, USA and many other countries. An early paper reported 41 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection in Wuhan. The median age of the patients was 49 years and mostly men (73%). Among those, 32% were admitted to the ICU because of the severe hypoxemia. The most associated comorbidities were diabetes (20%), hypertension (15%), and cardiovascular diseases (15%). On admission, 98% of the patients had bilateral multiple lobular and sub-segmental areas of consolidation. Importantly, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) developed in 29% of the patients, while acute cardiac injury in 12%, and secondary infection in 10%. Invasive mechanical ventilation was required in 10% of those patients, and two of these patients (5%) had refractory hypoxemia and received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). In a later retrospective report by Wang and collaborators, clinical characteristics of 138 patients with COVID-19 infection were described. ICU admission was required in 26.1% of the patients for acute respiratory distress syndrome (61.1%), arrhythmia (44.4%), and shock (30.6%). ECMO support was needed in 11% of the patients admitted to the ICU. During the period of follow-up, overall mortality was 4.3%. The use of ECMO in COVID-19 infection is increasing due to the high transmission rate of the infection and the respiratory-related mortality. Therefore, the investigators believe that ECMO in case of severe interstitial pneumonia caused by COVID could represent a valid solution in order to avoid lung injuries related to prolonged treatment with non-invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation. In addition, ECMO could have a role for the systemic complications such as septic and cardiogenic shock as well myocarditis scenarios. Potential clinical effects and outcomes of the ECMO support in the novel coronavirus pandemic will be recorded and analyzed in our project. The researchers hypothesize that a significant percentage of patients with COVID-19 infection will require the utilize of ECMO for refactory hypoxemia, cardiogenic shock or septic shock. This study seeks to prove this hypothesis by conducting an observational retrospective/prospective study of patients in the ICU who underwent ECMO support and describe clinical features, severity of pulmonary dysfunction and risk factors of COVID-patients who need ECMO support, the incidence of ECMO use, ECMO technical characteristics, duration of ECMO, complications and outcomes of COVID-patients requiring ECMO support.

KasselStart: April 2020
ICITRU : Randomized Trial of Immunonutrition With L-citrulline in Patients Hospitalized in Intensive Care for Sepsis or Septic Shock

Immunonutrition in intensive care has not yet demonstrated a beneficial effect on organ failure, the acquisition of nosocomial infections, or mortality. It did not correct for acquired immunosuppression in intensive care patients. Despite numerous methodological problems (use of several pharmaconutrients, very heterogeneous set of patients) and the absence of clinical data, deleterious effects have been attributed to immunonutrition in intensive care, in particular in septic patients and patients in intensive care . Arginine (ARG) is a semi-essential amino acid involved in many immunological mechanisms. It is synthesized in sufficient quantity under normal conditions but quickly becomes insufficient under catabolic conditions such as in severe sepsis. Arginine is not only the precursor of nitrogen monoxide (NO) but also an essential substrate for numerous enzymatic reactions which participate in the maintenance of immune homeostasis, in particular T lymphocyte function. Depletion of the cellular medium in arginine will induce an abnormality in the metabolism of immune cells responsible for a dysfunction of these cells (lymphopenia linked to early apoptosis) and thus expose patients to organ failure and nosocomial infections. It has been found that hypoargininemia in intensive care patients is associated with the persistence of organ dysfunction (SOFA score), the occurrence of nosocomial infections and mortality. Also, it has been demonstrated that in these patients, enteral administration of ARG was not deleterious and increased ornithine synthesis, suggesting a preferential use of ARG via the arginases route, without significant increase in argininaemia or effect on immune functions. L-citrulline (CIT), an endogenous precursor of ARG, constitutes an interesting alternative for increasing the availability of ARG. Sponsor recent data demonstrate that the administration of CIT in intensive care is not deleterious and that it very significantly reduces mortality in an animal model of sepsis, corrects hypoargininemia, with convincing data on immunological parameters such as lymphopenia, which is associated with mortality, organ dysfunction and the occurrence of nosocomial infections. The availability of ARG directly impacts the mitochondrial metabolism of T lymphocytes and their function. Our hypothesis is therefore that CIT supplementation is more effective than administration of ARG in correcting hypoargininemia, reducing lymphocyte dysfunction, correcting immunosuppression and organ dysfunction in septic patients admitted to intensive care.

Rennes, BretagneStart: September 2021
Safety and Efficacy of HA380 Hemoadsorption in Patients With Septic Shock

Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in patients with septic shock and acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) remains high and approximates 50-60%. Sepsis is the leading etiology for AKI and CRRT requirement in ICU patients. In septic shock, the dysregulated host response to infectious pathogens leads to a cytokine storm with uncontrolled production and release of humoral pro-inflammatory mediators. These pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines exert cellular toxicity and promote the development of organ dysfunction and increased mortality. In addition to treating AKI, CRRT techniques can be employed for adsorption of inflammatory mediators extracorporally using specially developed adsorption membranes, hemoperfusion sorbent cartridges or columns. Several methods and devices, such as Oxiris®-AN69 membrane, CytoSorb® cytokine hemoadsorption and polymyxin B (Toraymyxin) endotoxin adsorption and plasmapheresis have been evaluated in small study series but to date the data on outcome benefits remains controversial. HA380 (Jafron Biomedical Co , Ltd, Zhuhai, China) is a CE-labeled hemoadsorption cartridge developed to treat patients with septic shock. It contains hemo-compatible, porous polymeric beads that adsorp cytokines and mid-molecular weight toxins on their surface. The cytokines absorved using this cartridge are IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in addition to TNF-α8. Therefore, this study aims to examine the potential effects of cytokine adsorption using HA380 in addition to hemodiafiltration with the Oxiris®-AN69 membrane on ICU- and 90-day mortality in patients with septic shock and AKI.

TurkuStart: June 2021