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30 active trials for Healthy Control

MusculRA: The Effects of Rheumatoid Arthritis on Skeletal Muscle Biomechanics

Persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suffer from increased disability and mortality, in part resulting from skeletal muscle impairments. In this study, our objective is to determine if skeletal muscle biomechanical properties are altered in RA. Up to 15 participants with early RA defined as duration of disease/symptoms of less than 6 months (where "duration" denotes the length of time the patient has had symptoms/disease, not the length of time since RA diagnosis) AND prior to starting biologic Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARD) therapy and 15 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched controls will undergo clinical assessments of skeletal muscle stiffness and elasticity as measured by the hand-held MyotonPro device. Additional study participant assessments include cardiopulmonary exercise testing, muscle strength testing, body composition measurement using BodPod, muscle oxidative capacity testing using near-infrared spectroscopy, and thigh muscle needle biopsies to compare clinical findings to an ex vivo cultured myobundle system. Primary statistical analyses will be comparisons of skeletal muscle parameters in RA compared to controls and correlations to determine relationships between variables. Thigh muscle biopsies are a low-risk procedure that may cause minor local soreness and bleeding; all other clinical assessments are non-invasive and will induce minimal discomfort to participants.

Durham, North CarolinaStart: September 2020
Intranasal Insulin and Olanzapine Study in Healthy Volunteers

Antipsychotic (AP) medications are considered to be the gold standard treatment for psychotic disorders including schizophrenia. However, APs have also been commonly associated with serious metabolic adverse effects including weight gain and Type 2 Diabetes, with younger populations disproportionately affected. In addition, young individuals treated with these agents have also been found to be at high risk for glucose dysregulation, including higher rates of prediabetes, with significant associations found between AP use and insulin resistance. Due to the concerning prevalence of these AP metabolic effects, it becomes important to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying AP effects on glucose metabolism, which are still poorly understood. One potential underlying mechanism is insulin which has been found to regulate hepatic (liver) glucose production through insulin receptors in the brain. These insulin receptors also play a role in neuronal growth and memory, or more broadly, cognition. Preliminary data in rat models has demonstrated that the AP olanzapine (OLA) inhibits the ability of a central insulin stimulus (acting at the level of the brain) to decrease endogenous glucose production (EGP), making this mechanism a prime target to translate from rodent models to human research. Furthermore, intranasal insulin (INI) administration (an analogous central insulin stimulus) has been repeatedly associated with improved cognitive performance for verbal memory and visuospatial functions in humans. Given these findings and with the goal of translational research, the present study will investigate OLA's effects in healthy human volunteers including: (a) the ability of INI to reduce EGP during a pancreatic euglycemic clamp (PEC; a glucose metabolism and insulin procedure); and (b) the ability of INI to improve cognitive performance. More specifically, the present study hypothesizes that: INI will be associated with a decrease in EGP relative to intranasal placebo (INP) as measured by the PEC. This effect will be inhibited if OLA is co-administered. OLA administration will be associated with decrements in cognitive measures (i.e., visuospatial, and verbal memory) as compared to placebo (PL). Additionally, OLA co-administration will block the beneficial effects of INI on cognition previously supported by other studies. INI will result in adaptive changes in neurochemical and neurohemodynamic measures as studied using MRI imaging techniques.

Toronto, OntarioStart: October 2019
Imaging Cannabinoid Receptors Using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scanning

The aim of the present study is to assess the availability of cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) in the human brain. CB1R are present in everyone's brain, regardless of whether or not someone has used cannabis. The investigators will image brain cannabinoid receptors using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging and the radioligand OMAR, in healthy individuals and several conditions including 1) cannabis use disorders, 2) psychotic disorders, 3) prodrome of psychotic illness and 4) individuals with a family history of alcoholism, 5) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 6) Opioid Use Disorder using the PET imaging agent or radiotracer, [11C]OMAR. This will allow us to characterize the number and distribution of CB1R in these conditions. It is likely that the list of conditions will be expanded after the collection of pilot data and as new data on cannabinoids receptor function and psychiatric disorders becomes available. Those in the cannabis us disorder arm of the study will have a PET scan on at least three occasions: once while smoking as usual, once after 48-hours of abstinence from cannabis, and a final time after 4 weeks of abstinence. Additional scans may be conducted within the 4 weeks and the last scan may be conducted well beyond 4 weeks. Similarly, while most schizophrenia patients may get scanned just once, a subgroup of patients may get scanned more than once. For example to tease out the effects of medications, unmedicated patients may get scanned while unmedicated and again after treatment with antipsychotic medications. Similarly prodromes may get scanned while in the prodromal stage off medications, on medications and after conversion to schizophrenia.

New Haven, ConnecticutStart: July 2010