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84 active trials for Kidney Failure

Normothermic Machine Perfusion (NMP) Versus Static Cold Storage (SCS) in Human Kidney Transplantation

Due to organ shortage in kidney transplantation (KT) several strategies have been implemented in an attempt to increase donor pool utilization, including transplantation of extended criteria donor (ECD) allografts. While the transplantation of ECD organs saves patients from waiting-list dropout, these pre-damaged organs exhibit an increased susceptibility to further injury during organ storage and transplantation. Static cold storage (SCS) involves the transportation of procured donor kidneys on ice and has remained the gold standard for organ preservation for decades. SCS relies on hypothermia to reduce cellular metabolism and oxygen demand while achieving a prolonged preservation time of organs. Upon reperfusion, the reintroduction of oxygen to the ischemic kidney leads to a respiratory burst with massive production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and subsequent sterile inflammation of the entire organ. This ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a central predictor of graft and patient survival. Current clinical preservation strategies are unable to meet the challenges of ECD allograft transplantation and there is a great demand to optimize preservation techniques for such high risk ECD allografts. Currently, two main paradigms prevail in the clinical approach to kidney allograft machine perfusion (MP) in regard to optimized preservation techniques: while end-ischemic hypothermic (HMP) and hypothermic oxygenated MP (HOPE) may be seen as dynamic alternatives of the traditional organ preservation based on hypothermia-induced deceleration of metabolism could not proof a beneficial effect on delayed graft function or primary graft failure, the impact of normothermic perfusion (NMP) on ECD kidney allografts is still missing. NMP aims at re-equilibration of cellular metabolism by preserving the organ at physiological temperatures whilst ensuring sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply. The present trial was therefore designed to provide first level-II evidence for NMP in human KT after donation after brain death (DBD). In total, 194 human kidney grafts will be randomized to either 4 hours of NMP directly before implantation (intervention group; n = 97) or to SCS (control group; n = 97) prior to transplantation. The primary endpoint will be kidney function after 6 months (6-months eGFR). Secondary endpoints include kidney function after 3 and 12 months, incidence of delayed graft function (DGF), primary non-function (PNF) and surgical complications assessed by the comprehensive complication index (CCI).

HannoverStart: September 2021
Assessment of Immune Response After Vaccination Against COVID-19 in Patients Treated With Renal Replacement Therapy

Chronically dialyzed patients and kidney transplant recipients have been identified as particularly vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection due to unavoidable exposure. They have also high rates of comorbid conditions and have varying degrees of immunosuppression, which puts them at risk of developing very severe forms of COVID-19 disease with fatality rates varying from 16% to 32%. In such circumstances vaccination is the only chance to improve their extremely poor prognosis. There is very little published data on the response to vaccination in dialyzed patients and kidney transplant recipients so far. No data are available on the efficacy of vaccines against COVID-19 in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). Furthermore, given the fact that disturbances of acquired immunity in dialyzed patients are many and diverse it is uncertain whether vaccinating against SARS CoV-2 in these population will result in sufficient immune response and, by consequence, protection against infection. Registration studies on the basis of which population vaccinations are actually conducted were performed only in the general population. There were no dialyzed patients and kidney transplant recipients in the study groups, so these patients are vaccinated with doses and schedules for people without chronic kidney disease. It is not known whether vaccination under such standard schedule produces a sufficient immune response in them and how long it lasts. That's why the aim of this study is to evaluate the humoral and cellular immune response after mRNA vaccine against COVID-19 with which patients treated with renal replacement therapy are vaccinated in Poland. It will be a prospective, observational controlled study conducted in patients treated with renal replacement therapy (hemodialyzed subjects, patients treated with peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplant recipients) vaccinated with mRNA vaccine against COVID-19 according to common rules and manufactures recommendations.The control group will be made up of sex and age matched people without chronic kidney disease.The first goal of the study is to analyze seroconversion rate and titer magnitude of neutralizing IgG and IgA antibodies directed against spike (s) SARS-CoV-2 antigen after the first and the second dose of mRNA vaccine as well as after 3, 6, 9, 12 months after vaccination. The second goal is to evaluate the cellular immune response tested using the ELISPOT method at the same time points as above.The immune response will be compared to patients without chronic kidney disease as well as between hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients.

GdyniaStart: February 2021
Dietary Sodium-Restriction (DIS) and Renal Meals (RM) for Hemodialysis (HD)(DISaRM-HD)

Chronic volume overload (VO) is a primary factor responsible for the excessive cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. VO is caused in part by excessive fluid intake that is secondary to the consumption of a high salt diet. HD patients are often counselled to restrict their dietary sodium intake to help manage thirst and reduce their interdialytic weight gain (IDWG). However, data from recently published investigations demonstrate that dietary counseling alone may be ineffective. The objective of this randomized controlled trial is to determine if short-term feeding of low-sodium meals can "prime" changes in long-term nutrition behavior. It is hypothesized that feeding low-sodium meals for one month will significantly reduce IDWG and related outcomes, and continued dietary counseling and education support for 6 months will result in a sustained reduction in sodium intake upon patient resumption of meal responsibility. HD patients will be recruited and randomized to 2 groups: 1) Low-sodium meal feeding plus dietary counseling; or 2) a weight-list control group that will initially receive dietary counseling alone. IDWG will serve as the primary outcome with fluid volume overload, intradialytic hypotension, cramping, dietary sodium intake, sodium taste sensitivity and preference, and sodium self-efficacy evaluated at 1 and 6 months. This outcomes of this investigation will provide the first data on whether meal provision is an effective tool for dietary modeling and prolonged behavior change in HD patients.

Urbana, IllinoisStart: October 2020
Effects of the SGLT2 Inhibitor Empagliflozin in Patients With Euvolemic and Hypervolemic Hyponatremia

Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte derangement occurring in hospitalized patients. It is usually classified as hypovolemic, euvolemic or hypervolemic. The most common aetiology of euvolemic hyponatremia is the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD). Hypervolemic hyponatremia is common in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) (10-27%) and liver cirrhosis (up to approximately 50%). In SIAD, the regulation of arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion is impaired which leads to free water retention. In CHF and liver cirrhosis, the effective arterial blood volume is decreased leading to non-osmotic baroreceptor mediated AVP release and consecutive free water retention. Current treatments of euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia, including the most used treatment fluid restriction, are of limited efficacy. Sodium-Glucose-Co-Transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule, resulting in glucosuria and consecutive osmotic diuresis. A placebo-controlled randomized trial of our group has shown that a short-term, i.e. a 4-days administration of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin (Jardiance)® in addition to fluid restriction was effective in increasing the serum sodium concentration in 87 patients with SIAD-induced hyponatremia. The effect of empagliflozin (Jardiance)® without additional fluid restriction is however not yet known. Large randomized controlled trials have shown that SGLT2 inhibitors reduced hospitalization for heart failure in patients with, and more recently without type 2 diabetes. No studies have investigated the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors in hypervolemic hyponatremia. To evaluate the effect of empagliflozin (Jardiance)® in eu- and hypervolemic hyponatremia, a randomized placebo-controlled study is needed.

BaselStart: February 2021
Renal Osteodystrophy: An Individual Management Approach

Renal osteodystrophy (ROD) represents the bone histologic abnormalities resulting from loss of renal function. It starts early during the loss of kidney function and is seen in virtually all chronic end stage kidney disease patients on dialysis (CKD-5D). A major component of ROD is bone loss leading to chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated osteoporosis. Debilitating hip fractures occur in patients with CKD at a rate 4.4 times higher than in the general population, with associated high costs, morbidity and an annual mortality of 64%. CKD osteoporosis is distinctly different from post-menopausal osteoporosis. Presently, no uniformly accepted CKD osteoporosis treatment protocol exists because of challenges related to racially specific bone turnover states. Therefore, most physicians are reluctant to treat this disorder despite the profound impact on health and quality of life, and its association with vascular calcifications. These vascular calcifications confer an increased risk for cardiovascular events which are the major cause of the over 20% annual mortality rate in CKD-5D patients. The goal of the proposed controlled randomized study is to test the concept that CKD osteoporosis can be successfully treated when treatment is individualized by patients' turnover status. The study will demonstrate that reversal of bone loss can be achieved by increasing bone formation in low turnover patients, and by reducing bone resorption in normal or high turnover patients. A second aim of this study is to provide new information whether these treatments will also retard progression of vascular calcifications. Blood tests measuring FGF23, indicators of Wnt pathway activity, bone resorption and formation will be followed to understand potential mechanisms and to evaluate their usefulness for prediction of changes in bone mass and vascular calcifications. CKD-5D patients with established osteoporosis will be enrolled into one of two treatment arms based on bone turnover status. Each arm will be adaptively randomized by race, age and gender into treatment or control groups. In the low turnover arm, teriparatide combined with cinacalcet will be given, and in the normal or high turnover arm, alendronate will be administered. Bone mineral density will be measured at baseline and after one year of treatment by quantitative computed tomography. Calcifications of the coronaries, aorta and heart valves will also be measured at the same times by multi-detector computed tomography. If this proof-of-concept study is successful, it will offer a heretofore unavailable treatment for osteoporosis in CKD-5D patients thus changing the prevailing clinical practice paradigm. This will provide immediate benefit to CKD patients by reducing fracture risk, bone pain, and cardiovascular risk, while greatly improving their quality of life. These improvements will also convey major socioeconomic benefits by decreasing the high associated treatment costs. The proposed study is highly relevant to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases' mission of disseminating science-based information to improve the health and quality of life for patients with endocrine, metabolic and kidney diseases.

Lexington, KentuckyStart: July 2015