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Impact of an Open Lung Extubation Strategy on Postoperative Pulmonary Complications

Perioperative respiratory complications are a major source of morbidity and mortality. Postoperative atelectasis plays a central role in their development. Protective "open lung" mechanical ventilation aims to minimize the occurrence of atelectasis during the perioperative period. Randomized controlled studies have been performed comparing various "open lung" ventilation protocols, but these studies report varying and conflicting effects. The interpretation of these studies is complicated by the absence of imagery supporting the pulmonary impact associated with the use of different ventilation strategies. Imaging studies suggest that the gain in pulmonary gas content in "open lung" ventilation regimens disappears within minutes after the extubation. Thus, the potential benefits of open-lung ventilation appear to be lost if, at the time of extubation, no measures are used to keep the lungs well aerated. Recent expert recommendations on good mechanical ventilation practices in the operating room conclude that there is actually no quality study on extubation. Extubation is a very common practice for anesthesiologists as part of their daily clinical practice. It is therefore imperative to generate evidence on good clinical practice during anesthetic emergence in order to potentially identify an effective extubation strategy to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications.

Montréal, QuebecStart: September 2021