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Myocardial Perfusion, Coronary Flow Reserve and Kinetic Analysis During Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography

Stress echocardiography is a screening test for coronary heart disease that already has good sensitivity and specificity (both around 70%). This examination is mainly offered to stable patients, consulting externally, in order to detect ischemic heart disease in the same way as would a myocardial scintigraphy or MRI stress. This examination is an echocardiographic modality consisting in visualizing and analyzing the modifications of the contraction of the cardiac muscle during a stress constituted by an effort or by injection of certain drugs. Stress echocardiography is performed by injection of drugs to reproduce the conditions of the effort. The products used to perform this examination are initially an intravenous infusion of dobutamine, atropine whose effect is to increase the heart rate, and in a second time, an intravenous infusion of beta-blockers or a bradycardic calcium channel blocker at the end of the procedure whose effect is to slow down the heart rate. The use of echographic contrast medium, allowing a better visibility, is recommended for the realization of a stress ultrasound, since the echogenicity is judged insufficient on two segments (segmentation of the left ventricle in 17 segments). The analysis of dobutamine stress echocardiography currently relies solely on the analysis of segmental kinetics, namely the quality of the thickening of the endocardium. When segmental kinetics are abnormal, patients benefit from a coronary CT scan or coronary angiography to visualize all the coronary arteries and to check whether there is a narrowing of the arteries. Moreover, stress echocardiography performed using a contrast medium makes it possible to analyze two other indices in addition to segmental kinetics. Thus, the second parameter that can be analyzed corresponds to the Coronary Flow Reserve measurement, thanks to the easy identification of the Doppler flow in the anterior interventricular at rest and peak of dobutamine. The coronal reserve is well validated with adenosine, but much less well known under dobutamine. The third parameter that can be analyzed is myocardial perfusion. By using appropriate settings, it is possible to see the microbubbles in the thickness of the myocardium. These bubbles are then destroyed by an ultrasonic flash of high mechanical index. This results in the destruction of all intra-myocardial bubbles. The analysis of the myocardial perfusion is based on the rate of reappearance of these bubbles (through the coronary arteries) at rest and peak stress. In case of significant stenosis or coronary occlusion, there is a delay or complete absence of perfusion in the territory concerned. Joint analysis of segmental kinetics, coronary reserve and myocardial perfusion has already been described with adenosine, but not with dobutamine. Studies in the literature suggest that the analysis of coronary reserve on the one hand, and myocardial perfusion on the other hand would increase the sensitivity and specificity of the examination. In addition, other studies suggest that among the tests considered normal for segmental kinetics analysis, there are patients with myocardial perfusion abnormality and / or coronary reserve abnormality that strike (s) on prognosis (alteration of the coronary microcirculation). This is why it seems interesting to compare the results of these 3 indices obtained during stress echocardiography under dobutamine.

ParisStart: June 2019
International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA)

The purpose of the ISCHEMIA trial is to determine the best management strategy for higher-risk patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial with 5179 randomized participants with moderate or severe ischemia on stress testing. A blinded coronary computed tomography angiogram (CCTA) was performed in most participants with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73m2 to identify and exclude participants with either significant unprotected left main disease (≥50% stenosis) or those without obstructive CAD (<50% stenosis in all major coronary arteries). Of 8518 participants enrolled, those that had insufficient ischemia, ineligible anatomy demonstrated on CCTA or another exclusion criterion, did not go on to randomization. Eligible participants were then assigned at random to a routine invasive strategy (INV) with cardiac catheterization followed by revascularization, if feasible, plus optimal medical therapy (OMT) or to a conservative strategy (CON) of OMT, with cardiac catheterization and revascularization reserved for those who fail OMT. SPECIFIC AIMS A. Primary Aim The primary aim of the ISCHEMIA trial is to determine whether an initial invasive strategy of cardiac catheterization followed by optimal revascularization, if feasible, in addition to OMT, will reduce the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or hospitalization for unstable angina or heart failure in participants with SIHD and moderate or severe ischemia over an average follow-up of approximately 3.5 years compared with an initial conservative strategy of OMT alone with catheterization reserved for failure of OMT. B. Secondary Aims Secondary aims are to determine whether an initial invasive strategy compared to a conservative strategy will improve: 1) the composite of CV death or MI; 2) angina symptoms and quality of life, as assessed by the Seattle Angina Questionnaire; 3) all-cause mortality; 4) net clinical benefit assessed by including stroke in the primary and secondary composite endpoints; and 5) individual components of the composite endpoints. Condition: Coronary Disease Procedure: Coronary CT Angiogram Procedure: Cardiac catheterization Phase: Phase III per NIH Condition: Cardiovascular Diseases Procedure: Angioplasty, Transluminal, Percutaneous Coronary, other catheter-based interventions Phase: Phase III per NIH Condition: Heart Diseases Procedure: Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Phase: Phase III per NIH

Sao PauloStart: July 2012

The International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA) EXTENDed Follow-up (ISCHEMIA-EXTEND) is the long-term follow-up of randomized, surviving participants in ISCHEMIA. ISCHEMIA was an NHLBI-supported trial that randomized 5,179 participants with stable ischemic heart disease to two different management strategies: 1) an initial invasive strategy (INV) of cardiac catheterization and revascularization when feasible plus guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT), or 2) an initial conservative strategy (CON) of GDMT. The trial did not demonstrate a reduction in the primary endpoint with an initial invasive strategy. There was an excess of procedural myocardial infarction (MI) and a reduction in spontaneous MI in the INV group. Prior evidence suggests that spontaneous MI carries a higher risk of subsequent death than procedural MI. There was a late separation in the cardiovascular (CV) mortality curves, over a median of 3.2 years follow-up in ISCHEMIA. The MI incidence curves crossed at approximately 2 years. Therefore, based on the observed reduction in spontaneous MI, it is imperative to ascertain long-term vital status to provide patients and clinicians with robust evidence on whether an invasive strategy reduces CV and all-cause death over the long-term. With projected 728 CV deaths we have adequate power to detect a between-group difference in mortality. We will also quantify the impact of nonfatal CV events on subsequent mortality in ISCHEMIA-EXTEND, construct a risk score for mortality using baseline deep phenotypic data, and provide estimates of the impact of the invasive strategy in the highest risk subgroup - those with severe coronary artery disease for whom current practice guidelines recommend coronary artery bypass (CABG) to improve survival. SPECIFIC AIMS Aim 1. To assess whether an initial invasive strategy reduces long-term CV mortality compared with an initial conservative strategy in SIHD patients with at least moderate ischemia on stress testing, over 10 years median follow-up. Aim 2. To assess the impact of nonfatal events on long-term CV and all-cause mortality Aim 3. To construct risk scores for CV and all-cause mortality using phenotypic data including clinical factors, stress test findings, and details of coronary anatomy. Condition: Coronary Disease Procedure: Observational Phase: Phase III per NIH Condition: Cardiovascular Diseases Procedure: Observational Phase: Phase III per NIH Condition: Heart Diseases Procedure: Observational Phase: Phase III per NIH

Start: July 2012